Journal of Immunology Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the Link

Table 2

Inflammatory mediators released during sleep loss that may potentially regulate blood-brain barrier integrity.

Inflammatory mediatorGeneral changes during sleep lossGeneral effects on blood-brain barrier

TNF-α circulating levels in human and rodents [2932]
mRNA expression in mice brain [33]
blood-brain barrier permeability in in vivo and in vitro models (rodent and human brain endothelial cells) [3840]
efflux of albumin from brain to blood [43]
ZO-1 expression [103]
MMP-9 protein expression [106]

IL-1β circulating levels in human and rodents [3, 4, 29, 49]
mRNA expression in mice brain [45]
blood-brain barrier permeability in in vivo and in vitro models (rodent and human brain endothelial cells) [42, 54]
TEER of primary cultures of brain endothelial cells and human brain endothelial cells [42, 54]
production of PGE and COX [57]
ZO-1 expression [103]

IL-6 circulating levels in human after chronic sleep loss [64, 65]
circulating levels in humans [62]
circulating levels during sleep recovery in humans [69]
mRNA expression in human PBMC [50, 67]
TEER in cerebrovascular endothelial cells from rats at higher doses but not at lower doses [42]
blood-brain barrier permeability in ischemic brain in rodents [71]

IL-17A circulating levels in rodents [29]
mRNA expression in human PBMC [50]
blood-brain barrier permeability in in vivo and in vitro models (rodent and human brain endothelial cells) [78, 79]

CRP circulating levels in humans and rodents [4, 8, 50, 67, 8183] blood-brain barrier permeability in in vivo and in vitro models (rodent and human brain endothelial cells) [85]
ROS production in brain endothelial cells [86]

TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IL: interleukin; CRP: C-reactive protein; ZO: zonula occludens; MMP-9: matrix metalloproteinase-9; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; ROS: reactive oxygen species; COX; cyclooxygenase; and TEER: transendothelial electric resistance.