(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 1: The effects of botanicals on cytokine production by human PBMCs. (a) shows the gating on viable lymphocytes (R1 in dot plot graph) based on FSC and SSC parameters (see Section 2); (b) represents the gating on lymphocytes (CD3+ CD8 as R2 in the dot plot graph) and on non-T cells (CD3 CD8 cells as R3 in the dot plot graph); and (c) shows the INF-γ and IL-4 production in human lymphocytes and non-T cells incubated with ad hoc medium derived from botanicals or from mixture (see Section 2). Cytokine production was evaluated as percentage of INF-γ (-axis) and IL-4 (-axis) producing cells. The percentage of INF-γ (upper left quadrant inside the dot plots) and IL-4 (low right quadrant inside the dot plots) producing CD4 T (R2) and non-T (R3) cells are reported. The different cell incubations with ad hoc medium derived from botanicals or from mixture (see Section 2) are indicated on the top of each graph. (d) reports the statistic representation of 10 experiments on human CD4+ T Lymphocytes evaluated as percentage of INF-γ producing cells, . The different cell-incubations with ad hoc medium derived from botanicals or from mixture (see Section 2) are indicated on the top of each column. The abbreviation “ctr” in (c) and (d) indicates the basal cytokine production by PMBCs stimulated by PMA and Ionomycin and in presence of the ad hoc medium based on the same solubilizing-vehicle but free from the botanicals (see Section 2); specifically, ctr 1 (Ascophyllum n., Carica p., Aloe v., Cucumis m., Glycine m., and Grifola f.), ctr 2 (Echinacea p., Piper n.), ctr 3 (Haematococcus p.), and ctr 4 (the mixture of all the botanicals).