(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 2: The effects of botanicals on INF-γ production by canine PBMCs. (a) shows the gating on viable lymphocytes (R1 in dot plot graph) based on FSC and SSC parameters (see Section 2). (b) represents the gating on CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD3+ CD8 as R2 in the dot plot graph). (c) reports the results from one representative experiment showing the percentage (the number in upper quadrant) of INF-γ producing canine CD4+ T lymphocytes gated on R2 (-axis); -axis indicates the SSC parameter (see Section 2). The different coincubations of cells with ad hoc medium or mixture (see Section 2) are indicated on the top. (d) shows the statistic representation the INF-γ production by canine CD4+ T Lymphocytes evaluated as percentage of INF-γ producing cells in 10 representative experiments, . The abbreviation “ctr” in (c) and (d) indicates the basal INF-γ production by PMBCs stimulated by PMA and Ionomycin and in presence of the ad hoc medium based on the same solubilizing-vehicle but free from the botanicals (see Section 2): specifically, ctr 1 (Ascophyllum n., Carica p., Aloe v., Cucumis v., Glycine m., and Grifola f.), ctr 2 (Echinacea p., Piper n.), and ctr 3 (Haematococcus p.).