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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 8249015, 9 pages
Review Article

The Toll of Vascular Insufficiency: Implications for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, Suite A1011, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

Received 9 October 2015; Revised 19 January 2016; Accepted 21 January 2016

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2016 Jun Xu and Ulka Sachdev. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) can result in limb loss within six months of diagnosis in a subset of patients who cannot undergo endovascular or surgical revascularization yet continues to maintain a marginal position in cardiovascular research. While a body of literature continues to grow describing the role of danger signaling and innate immunity in cardiac biology, the role of these pathways in the ischemic myopathy associated with PAD has not been extensively studied. The following report will review the current literature on the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in cardiovascular biology as well as in nonischemic myopathy. While attenuation of TLR signaling has not been shown to be clinically useful in the treatment of infectious inflammation, it may show promise in the management of severe arterial insufficiency.