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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8519648, 10 pages
Research Article

Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City

1Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico
2Servicio de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital Juárez de México, Secretaría de Salud, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 5160, 07760 Mexico City, Mexico
3Unidad de Oncología, Hospital Juárez de México, Secretaría de Salud, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 5160, 07760 Mexico City, Mexico
4Departamento de Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Salvador Díaz Mirón S/N, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico
5Laboratorio Nacional de Servicios Experimentales (LaNSE), Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, 07360 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 4 July 2016; Accepted 28 August 2016

Academic Editor: Andréia M. Cardoso

Copyright © 2016 Luis Miguel Barajas-Castañeda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118) primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%). In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45%) was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (). At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24%) than tumors without metastasis (). We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern.