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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 3145742, 7 pages
Review Article

Manipulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity through Cancer Vaccines

UF Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Preston A. Wells Jr. Center for Brain Tumor Therapy, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Elias J. Sayour; ude.lfu@ruoyase

Received 2 December 2016; Accepted 4 January 2017; Published 6 February 2017

Academic Editor: Said Dermime

Copyright © 2017 Elias J. Sayour and Duane A. Mitchell. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Although cancer immunotherapy has shown significant promise in mediating efficacious responses, it remains encumbered by tumor heterogeneity, loss of tumor-specific antigen targets, and the regulatory milieu both regionally and systemically. Cross talk between the innate and adaptive immune response may be requisite to polarize sustained antigen specific immunity. Cancer vaccines can serve as an essential fulcrum in initiating innate immunity while molding and sustaining adaptive immunity. Although peptide vaccines have shown tepid responses in a therapeutic setting with poor correlates for immune activity, RNA vaccines activate innate immune responses and have shown promising effects in preclinical and clinical studies based on enhanced DC migration. While the mechanistic insights behind the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity may be unique to the immunotherapeutic being investigated, understanding this dynamic is important to coordinate the different arms of the immune response in a focused response against cancer antigens.