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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4835189, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4835189
Review Article

Intestinal Dysbiosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Link between Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

1Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital General Regional 220, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Toluca, MEX, Mexico
2Coordinación de Investigación en Salud, Delegación Estado de México Poniente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Toluca, MEX, Mexico
3Jefatura de División de Investigación en Salud, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Puebla, PUE, Mexico
4Departamento de Nutrición y Bioprogramación, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, Secretaría de Salud, Ciudad de México, Mexico
5Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Cinvestav, Av IPN 2508 Col Zacatenco, Ciudad de México, Mexico
6Laboratory of Medical and Environmental Microbiology, Department of Medicine, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Toluca, MEX, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Gabriel Horta-Baas

Received 23 April 2017; Revised 17 June 2017; Accepted 12 July 2017; Published 30 August 2017

Academic Editor: Mitesh Dwivedi

Copyright © 2017 Gabriel Horta-Baas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome’s role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process. Studies with intestinal microbiota have shown that rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by an expansion and/or decrease of bacterial groups as compared to controls. In this review, we present evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis with the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.