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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 7261980, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7261980
Review Article

Understanding the Role of Chemokines and Cytokines in Experimental Models of Herpes Simplex Keratitis

Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Patrick M. Stuart; ude.uls@2trautsp

Received 21 January 2017; Accepted 26 March 2017; Published 9 April 2017

Academic Editor: Chen Zhao

Copyright © 2017 Tayaba N. Azher et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Herpes simplex keratitis is a disease of the cornea caused by HSV-1. It is a leading cause of corneal blindness in the world. Underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown, but experimental models have helped give a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathology. Cytokines and chemokines are small proteins released by cells that play an important proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory role in modulating the disease process. Cytokines such as IL-17, IL-6, IL-1α, and IFN-γ and chemokines such as MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β have proinflammatory role in the destruction caused by HSV including neutrophil infiltration and corneal inflammation, and other chemokines and cytokines such as IL-10 and CCL3 can have a protective role. Most of the damage results from neutrophil infiltration and neovascularization. While many more studies are needed to better understand the role of these molecules in both experimental models and human corneas, current studies indicate that these molecules hold potential to be targets of future therapy.