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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 9361802, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9361802
Review Article

Getting “Inside” Type I IFNs: Type I IFNs in Intracellular Bacterial Infections

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Jodi F. Hedges; moc.liamg@segdeh.idoj

Received 21 January 2017; Revised 20 March 2017; Accepted 27 March 2017; Published 26 April 2017

Academic Editor: Chen Zhao

Copyright © 2017 Deann T. Snyder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Type I interferons represent a unique and complex group of cytokines, serving many purposes during innate and adaptive immunity. Discovered in the context of viral infections, type I IFNs are now known to have myriad effects in infectious and autoimmune disease settings. Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. As such, the repercussions of type I IFN induction can positively or negatively impact the disease outcome. This review focuses on type I IFN induction and downstream consequences during infection with the following intracellular bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, Legionella pneumophila, and Coxiella burnetii. Intracellular bacterial infections are unique because the bacteria must avoid, circumvent, and even co-opt microbial “sensing” mechanisms in order to reside and replicate within a host cell. Furthermore, life inside a host cell makes intracellular bacteria more difficult to target with antibiotics. Because type I IFNs are important immune effectors, modulating this pathway may improve disease outcomes. But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections.