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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 9489383, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9489383
Research Article

Propyl Gallate Exerts an Antimigration Effect on Temozolomide-Treated Malignant Glioma Cells through Inhibition of ROS and the NF-κB Pathway

1Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 61363, Taiwan
2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan
3Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 61363, Taiwan
4Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
5Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan

Correspondence should be addressed to Ching-Hsein Chen; wt.ude.uycn.liam@hcnehc

Received 21 March 2017; Revised 23 June 2017; Accepted 28 June 2017; Published 14 September 2017

Academic Editor: Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún

Copyright © 2017 Jen-Tsung Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, we demonstrated that temozolomide (TMZ) and propyl gallate (PG) combination enhanced the inhibition of migration in human U87MG glioma cells. PG inhibited the TMZ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mitochondrial complex III and NADPH oxidase are two critical sites that can be considered to regulate antimigration in TMZ-treated U87MG cells. PG can enhance the antimigration effect of TMZ through suppression of metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activities, ROS generation, and the NF-κB pathway and possibly provide a novel prospective strategy for treating malignant glioma.