Table 1: Molecules differentially expressed by AMs from animals or patients with COPD compared to healthy controls.

Molecule familyEncoded proteinsReferences

CytokinesTNF-α ↓, IL-1B ↑↓, IL-6 ↓, IL-10 ↓, IL-12 ↑, Tnf-α ↓, Il-6 ↓[126, 145, 147, 148, 150152]
ChemokinesIL-8 ↓, CCL2 ↑, CCL5 ↓, CCL7 ↑, CCL13 ↑, CCL22 ↑, Cxcl10 ↓, CXCL9 ↓, CXCL10 ↓, CXCL11 ↓[126, 145, 147149, 151154, 158, 165]
Chemokine receptorsCCR2 ↑, CCR5 ↑[153, 154]
Prostaglandin metabolismPTGS1 ↑, PTGS2 ↑[156]
Oxidative stressGSH ↓, Gsh ↓, iNOS ↑, HO-1 ↓[147, 150, 155, 165, 167]
Iron metabolismHemosiderin ↑, transferrin ↑, transferrin receptor ↓, ferritin ↑[172175, 219]
ProteinasesMMP-1 ↑, MMP-2 ↑, MMP-7 ↑, MMP-9 ↑ (SNPs), MMP-12 ↑, matriptase ↑[154, 188194, 196]
Neutrophil proteases and inhibitorsα1-Antitrypsin[185]
Chitinolytic activityCHIT1 ↑, YKL-40 ↑[199, 200]
Recognition markersCD31 ↓, CD44 ↓, CD91 ↓, CR-3 ↑, CR-4 ↑, DC-SIGN ↑, MARCO ↓[150, 219, 226]
Cytoskeletal rearrangementsRAC1 ↓, VAV1 ↓, RhoA ↑[216, 229]
Mitochondrial stressMCL-1 ↑[230]
Integrins, scavenger receptors, and adhesion moleculesCD11a ↓, CD11c ↑, CD163 ↑, CD204 ↑, CD206 ↑, MSR-1 (SNPs), MERTK ↑[220, 227, 234, 235]
Antigen presentation moleculesMHC-I ↓, MHC-II ↓, HLA-DR ↓, CD80 ↓[150, 233]
Fc gamma receptors, PRRsFcγR1 ↑, CD16 ↓, TLR2 ↓, TLR3 ↓, TLR4 ↓, TLR5 ↑, TLR9 (SNPs)[126, 148, 150, 158, 165, 206, 233, 234, 236238]