Table 2: Molecules differentially expressed by monocytes or IMs from animals or patients with COPD compared to healthy controls.

Molecule familyEncoded proteinsReferences

CytokinesTNF-α ↓, IL-6 ↑[146, 245]
ChemokinesCCL2 ↑, IL-8 ↓[146, 252]
Chemokine receptorsCCR2 ↑[253]
MetalloproteinasesMMP-9 ↓, Mmp-12 ↑[146, 251]
Antigen presentation moleculesCD86 ↓[252]
Integrins, PRRsCD11b ↓, CD14 ↓, CD54 ↓[146, 252]
MicroRNAsmiR-24-3p ↑, miR-93-5p ↑, miR-320a ↑, miR-320b ↑, miR1273g-3p ↓[254]