Schematic illustration of how CLR stimulation affects Th polarization and mucosal IgA production. (a) Stimulation of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 receptors by specific PAMPs (curdlan and furfurman) results in predominant production of Th17 polarization cytokines: IL-6, IL-23, TGF-β by dendritic cells, and IL-17 by lymphocytes. Dendritic cells can in turn promote the development of IgA+ B cells in a TGF-β-dependent manner. Generation of mucosal IgA+ B cells is also favored by Th17 lymphocytes. (b) Stimulation of Mincle by TDB results in secretion of mixed Th1/Th17-polarizing cytokines by DCs (IL-6, IL-12, and IL-23). T cells are predominantly differentiated into Th1 cells secreting IFNγ and TNFα. B cells switch to producing IgG antibodies resulting in a stronger serum antibody response.