Research Article

Activation of PAR4 Upregulates p16 through Inhibition of DNMT1 and HDAC2 Expression via MAPK Signals in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

Figure 3

PAR4-AP suppressed DNMT1 and HDAC2 enrichments on the p16 promoter in ESCC cells. (a) Schematic representation of the p16 promoter region. P16-1, p16-2, and p16-3 indicate the locations of primers on the p16 promoter. (b, c) ChIP assays were performed for the p16 promoter in ESCC cells using antibodies to DNMT1 and HDAC2 after treatment of PAR4-AP at 2, 6, and 12 h. Normal rabbit IgG served as a negative control, and input chromatin (samples without immunoprecipitation (IP)) served as a positive control. (d, e) ChIP-qPCR assays to evaluate DNMT1 and HDAC2 enrichments in the p16 promoter region of ESCC cells with treatment of PAR4-AP at 2, 6, and 12 h. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (). versus controls.