The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption via Inhibition of TNF-α Expression in Macrophages
In vivo effect of exendin-4 on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced osteoclast formation. (a) Histological sections of mouse calvariae after 5-day daily supracalvarial injections with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), LPS (100 μg/day), LPS (100 μg/day) with exendin-4 (20 μg/day), and exendin-4 (20 μg/day). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and hematoxylin counterstaining were performed. TRAP-positive cells were stained dark red. (b) The numbers of TRAP-positive cells in the suture mesenchyme of calvaria from the mouse groups administered with PBS, LPS, LPS with exendin-4, and exendin-4, respectively. Data is expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical significance were determined by Scheffe’s test (; ).