The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption via Inhibition of TNF-α Expression in Macrophages
Exendin-4 inhibited LPS-induced expression of TNF-α in macrophages. TNF-α mRNA levels in macrophages were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Total RNA was isolated from macrophages cultured with PBS, LPS with or without exendin-4, and exendin-4 alone. TNF-α mRNA levels were normalized to the levels of GAPDH. Statistical significance of differences was determined by Scheffe’s test (;, ).