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Figure 6: Signaling pathways underlying the macrophage polarization by serum from endometriosis patients. Western blot analysis (a) showed that the protein levels of Smad2 (b) and Smad3 (c) were increased in THP-1 cell-derived macrophages treated with serum from endometriosis patients in the presence of LPS, as compared with the control. By flow cytometric analysis (d), preincubation with SB431542 resulted in a decrease in the percentage of CD163+ cells, which was only observed in macrophages treated with serum from endometriosis patients (e). The mRNA levels of CD86 (f), CD163 (g), IL-12 (h), and IL-10 (i) were detected by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining analysis (j) showed significantly decreased intensity of CD163+ macrophage staining in the presence of serum from endometriosis patients after preincubation with SB431542 (k). LPS: lipopolysaccharide; SB: SB431542. , , .