Differential Gene Expression Profile of Human Neutrophils Cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-Parasitized Erythrocytes
Response of human PMNs to iRBCs. (a) Percentage of PMNs phagocytizing iRBCs at different time points of incubation. Each bar represents the for each group (). (b) Neutrophils phagocytizing iRBCs or malaria pigment as stained by Giemsa. Arrows indicate phagocytized iRBCs or pigment. Freshly isolated neutrophils were cultured with enriched iRBCs onto coverslips, and their phagocytic activity was examined at different time points after staining with Giemsa. (c) PMNs phagocytizing iRBCs (upper panels) and releasing NETs after coculture with iRBCs (lower panels). PMNs on the coverslips were stained with specific antibodies and examined by means of confocal microscopy. The scale bar is indicated on each image. (d) Gene profile of human neutrophils as assessed by microarray analysis. Clusters of downregulated genes and upregulated genes of neutrophils cultured for 1 h with human nonparasitized RBCs or enriched iRBCs (). (e) Venn diagram analyses for the comparison genes regulated in PMNs after stimulation with iRBCs or LPS. The upper panel is for upregulated genes, and the lower panel for downregulated genes. (f) Venn diagram analyses for the comparison genes regulated in macrophages and PMNs phagocytizing iRBCs.