Pleiotropic effect of statins. Statins exert diverse effects on the immune response. It has been reported that statins can promote autophagy (in macrophages) and apoptosis (in tumor cells). Statins increase the number of NK and NKT cells. Statins may inhibit cytotoxicity of NK cells. Statins inhibit MHC-II expression (in CPA) and promote discrete secretion of IL-1β, IL-18, and IFN-γ (in mononuclear cells). Statins increase serum levels of IL-10. The blue boxes show the function of the immune cells in the pathogenesis and the mechanisms of M. tuberculosis evasion of the immune response; at the center, the blue lines demonstrate that the effect of statins is related to these processes; the green boxes show the statin effects that potentially favor the immune response against M. tuberculosis; and the red boxes indicate the statin effects that could modulate the immune response against M. tuberculosis.