Research Article

Tributyrin Supplementation Protects Immune Responses and Vasculature and Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Proximal Colon of Mice Exposed to Chronic-Binge Ethanol Feeding

Figure 2

Effect of tributyrin on neutrophil and macrophage regulators in the proximal colon following chronic-binge ethanol exposure. Mice were treated as described in Figure 1, and the proximal colon was excised and used to prepare RNA or embedded in OCT for histology. (a) G-CSF (green) was visualized by immunohistochemistry in sections of proximal colon frozen in OCT. Images shown were acquired using 20x objective and are representative of at least replicate images captured per mouse in four to six mice per treatment group. (b) Images acquired using a 10x objective were quantified for G-CSF-positive areas using Image Pro Plus software and analyzed. (c–e) Expression of MMP9, Arg1, and iNOS mRNA was detected in the proximal colon using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data are . Values with different alphabetical superscripts were significantly different from each other; and ; NS = not significant.