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Figure 5: Th1 cells mediate proinflammatory effects in HMCs. (a) Naïve CD4+ T cells develop into Th1 cells after stimulation with anti-CD3ε antibody and Th1-differentiating culture medium. (b) Cytokine expression was analysed via RT-PCR, and the results revealed that Th1 cells induced markedly increased IL-1A, IL-6, CCL2, and NFκB mRNA expression in HMCs. (c) Representative western blots showing the protein expression levels of IL-1α, IL-6, CCL2, and NFκB in mesangial cells after interaction with Th1 cells for 48 h; β-actin was used as the loading control. (d) The relative quantitation of IL-1α, IL-6, CCL2, and NFκB protein expression in each group was determined by western blot analysis; β-actin served as the internal reference. The data in (b) and (d) were analysed using Student’s -test. The data are representative of three independent experiments, and the error bars represent the . Con: HMCs cocultured with Th0 cells. vs. Con.