Table 1: Characteristics of 1035 participants according to olfactory dysfunction.

Presence of olfactory dysfunction ()Absence of olfactory dysfunction ()

Demographics & lifestyle habits, (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR)
Age (years)76 (8)73 (7)<.001
Sex (female)315 (53)262 (59).088
Education (years)5 (3)6 (3).003
Living alone241 (41)164 (37).199
Smoking (former and current)253 (43)170 (38).142
Dietary intake
Alcohol (g/day/kg)0.11 (0–0.29)0.10 (0–0.31).594
Total protein intake (g/day/kg)1.12 (0.33)1.13 (0.31).657
Total lipid intake (g/day/kg)0.96 (0.31)0.98 (0.31).310
Available carbohydrate intake (g/day/kg)3.73 (1.17)3.72 (1.29).913
Fibre (g/day/kg)0.29 (0.08)0.29 (0.08).551
Energy intake (kcal/day/kg)28.60 (8.25)28.71 (8.50).829
Comorbid conditions, (%) or median (IQR)
Diabetes67 (11)47 (11).764
Heart failure39 (7)20 (4).176
Chronic pulmonary disease52 (9)37 (8).823
Parkinson’s disease15 (2)12 (3).999
Stroke37 (6)23 (5).503
Hip fracture19 (3)19 (4).406
Peripheral arterial disease80 (14)41 (9).032
Malignancy28 (5)36 (8).036
Frailty phenotype85 (14)26 (6)<.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index1 (0-2)1 (0-1).489
Medications, (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR)
Neuroleptics18 (3)15 (3).859
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors13 (2)3 (1).072
ACE inhibitors92 (16)49 (11).035
Antiplatelets73 (12)40 (9).088
Anticoagulants8 (1)5 (1).787
Benzodiazepines112 (19)61 (14).029
Loop diuretics53 (9)32 (7).306
Corticosteroids8 (1)10 (2).339
Biohumoral, physical, and cognitive parameters, (%) or
Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min)62.6 (19.3)68.1 (19.2)<.001
Total serum proteins (g/dL)7.2 (0.4)7.1 (0.5).308
Interleukin 6 (pg/mL)1.49 (0.84-2.32)1.44 (0.88-2.27).582
Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.6 (1.4)13.8 (1.4).112
CES-D13 (9)12 (8).035
Mini Mental State Examination24.3 (4.3)24.7 (5.5).160
Katz’s activities of daily living5 (1)4 (2).107
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.3 (4.0)27.6 (4.2).183