Table 2: Characteristics of 1035 participants according to the presence of frailty.

Positive for frailty ()Negative for frailty ()

Demographics & lifestyle habits, (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR)
Age (years)81 (7)74 (7)<.001
Sex (female)70 (63)507 (55).106
Education (years)4 (3)5 (3)<.001
Living alone68 (61)337 (36)<.001
Smoking (former and current)38 (34)385 (42).153
Dietary intake
Alcohol (g/day/kg)0.04 (0–0.25)0.11 (0–0.31).021
Total protein intake (g/day/kg)1.04 (0.30)1.12 (0.32).009
Total lipid intake (g/day/kg)0.87 (0.28)0.97 (0.31).002
Available carbohydrates intake (g/day/kg)3.41 (1.11)3.76 (1.23).008
Fibre (g/day/kg)0.27 (0.09)0.30 (0.09).006
Energy intake (kcal/day/kg)26.0 (7.5)29.0 (8.4).001
Comorbid conditions, (%) or median (IQR)
Diabetes16 (14)98 (11).259
Heart failure19 (17)40 (4)<.001
Chronic pulmonary disease18 (16)71 (8).006
Parkinson’s disease8 (7)19 (2).002
Stroke16 (14)44 (5)<.001
Hip fracture11 (10)27 (3).001
Peripheral arterial disease23 (21)98 (11).004
Malignancy8 (7)56 (6).675
Olfactory dysfunction85 (77)505 (55)<.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index1 (1-2)0 (0-1)<.001
Medications, (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR)
Neuroleptics10 (9)23 (5).001
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors7 (6)9 (1).001
ACE inhibitors24 (22)117 (13).013
Antiplatelets18 (16)95 (10).075
Anticoagulants2 (2)11 (1).641
Benzodiazepines32 (29)141 (15).001
Loop diuretics21 (19)64 (7)<.001
Corticosteroids4 (4)14 (1).118
Biohumoral, physical, and cognitive parameters, (%) or
Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min)54.8 (20.5)66.0 (19.0)<.001
Total serum proteins (g/dL)7.2 (0.6)7.1 (0.4).838
Interleukin 6 (pg/mL)2.21 (1.35 – 4.09)1.40 (0.83–2.07)<.001
Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.1 (1.6)13.8 (1.3)<.001
CES-D20 (9)12 (8)<.001
Mini Mental State Examination21 (6)25 (4)<.001
Katz’s activities of daily living6 (0-1)6 (0–0)<.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.9 (5.1)27.4 (4.0).289