Journal of Immunology Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Cellular and Molecular Immunology Approaches for the Development of Immunotherapies against the New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): Challenges to Near-Future Breakthroughs

Table 2

Nonclinical studies focused on immunotherapy with potential benefits to COVID-19 treatment.

ProductPotential benefits for COVID-19Reference

DaclatasvirAntiviral compounds with immunomodulatory effect: reduce viral load and proinflammatory cytokines using in vitro cell cultivation with SARS-CoV-2Sacramento et al. [160]
Bovine lactoferrinAntiviral compounds with immunomodulatory effect: reduce viral load and possible reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and induction of T cell activationCarvalho et al. [167]
Kepi—inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 complex (PP1)Inhibition/blockade of immune response pathways: reduce signaling of inflammatory cytokines, as TNF-α in mice models infected with SARS-CoVMcDermott et al. [176]
Hybrid IFN-α B/DInhibition/blockade of immune response pathways: it was effective to inhibit SARS-CoV replication in Vero cells by in vitro assays and could reduce SARS-CoV replication in the lungs of infected miceBarnard et al. [177]
CCR2 antagonist/anti-CCR2Inhibition/blockade of immune response pathways: may promote monocyte egress from the bone marrow and monocyte recruitment in tissuesMerad and Martin [140]
IRAK4 inhibitor/PF-06650833; CA-4948Inhibition/blockade of immune response pathways: may reduce inflammation caused by macrophages, mediates TLR and IL-1β signalingMerad and Martin [140]
PAR-1 antagonist (SCH530348), PAR-1 antagonist receptor (SCH79797)Anticoagulants: may reduce levels of proinflammatory cytokines, neutrophilic lung inflammation, and other harmful pathological effects that are associated with the disseminated intravascular coagulation in COVID-19Khoufache et al./Bacil et al. [179, 183]
Inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTKi)Immunotherapeutic approaches with similarities to other immunopathological diseases: may reduce B cell responses and macrophage polarization, as observed in patients with B cell malignanciesChong et al. [180]

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