Journal of Lipids
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Lipoprotein(a) the Insurgent: A New Insight into the Structure, Function, Metabolism, Pathogenicity, and Medications Affecting Lipoprotein(a) Molecule

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Journal of Lipids provides a forum for scientists, physicians, and nutritionists working in all aspects of lipids research. Topics covered include their biochemistry, synthesis, function in health and disease, and nutrition.

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Research Article

A Transcriptional Regulatory System of the S. cerevisiae OLE1 Gene Responds to Fatty Acid Species and Intracellular Amount, and not Simply Membrane Status

We examined the effects of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) species and their concentration on the expression of OLE1, which encodes the stearoyl CoA desaturase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We controlled the amount of UFA taken up by the cell by varying the concentration of tergitol in the medium. When cultured with 1 mM fatty acid in 0.1% tergitol, cells took up much more fatty acid than when cultured with the same concentration of fatty acid at 1% tergitol, although the amount incorporated was dependent on UFA species. For each fatty acid tested, we found that the higher uptake (0.1% tergitol condition) had a stronger impact on OLE1 regulation. A principal product of the desaturase 16:1∆9, and the nonnative UFA 18:2∆9,12, most strongly repressed the reporter construct OLE1-lacZ transcription, while the other major product of the desaturase, 18:1∆9, and the nonnative UFA 17:1∆10 caused a more diminished response. Based on these results, our initial hypothesis was that OLE1 was regulated in response to membrane fluidity; however, subsequent work does not support that idea; we have found that conditions that affect membrane fluidity such as growth temperature and growth with saturated or trans fatty acid supplementation, do not regulate OLE1 in the direction predicted by fluidity changes. We conclude that at least one signal that regulates OLE1 transcriptional expression is most likely based on the fatty acids themselves.

Research Article

Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) Consumption on Serum Lipid Profiles in Albino Rats

Dyslipidemia is an important cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of cinnamon on body weight gain, food intake, and serum lipid profiles of albino rats. This study was conducted on 30 healthy male albino rats weighing approximately 130 ± 5 g. The study was divided into the following two experiments: experiment (1), wherein rats were fed a laboratory diet; and experiment (2), wherein rats were fed a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, a total of 15 rats were divided into three groups. Group A (, untreated control) was fed laboratory diet, Group B was fed laboratory diet and cinnamon powder (2 g/kg body weight), and Group C was fed laboratory diet and cinnamon powder (4 g/kg body weight) for 30 days. In experiment (2), a total of 15 rats were similarly divided into three groups. Group D (, treated control) was fed laboratory diet plus high-fat diet, Group E was fed cinnamon powder (2 g/kg body weight) mixed with laboratory diet plus high-fat diet, and Group F was fed cinnamon powder (4 g/kg body weight) mixed with laboratory diet plus high-fat diet daily for 30 days. An administration of 4 g/kg body weight of cinnamon extract powder decreased the final weight by 4.4%, body weight gains by 31.41%, food intake by 1.7%, and food efficiency ratio by 22.38% in hypercholesterolemic adult male rats as well as serum total cholesterol by 31.22%, triglyceride by 24.05%, and LDL-C by 43.49%, with an increase in the levels of HDL-C by 30.16%, furthermore, a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C levels and increasing serum HDL-C on day 30 were observed . This finding provides scientific evidence to substantiate the traditional use of cinnamon to treat hyperlipidemia.

Research Article

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Undiagnosed Palestinian Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

Introduction. Dyslipidemia is the most important modifiable risk factor that leads to cardiovascular diseases. The screening for dyslipidemia in Palestine is not established in primary health care centers for healthy people. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia among healthy undiagnosed adult men in Palestine in order to assess the need for screening and preventive programs for dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in 10 secondary schools at Nablus municipality (Palestine) from August 2017 to February 2018. The study included 140 teachers based on sample calculations. The age of participants ranged between 24 and 60 years. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data about the lifestyle, past medical, and family histories. Serum lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose levels for each participant were measured. Lipoprotein levels were categorized based on the adult treatment panel III criteria. Results. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia among Palestinian men was 66.4%. The most prevalent type of dyslipidemia was hypo HDL ( < 40 mg/dl, 59.3%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia ( ≥ 200 mg/dl, 20%). The prevalence of hyper LDL ( ≥ 160 mg/dl), hypercholesterolemia ( ≥ 240 mg/dl) was 8.5%, and 3.6%, respectively. About 15% of participants had glucose intolerance, and 4.3% had hyperglycemia (undiagnosed). Those with glucose intolerance, 13 (9.2%) have hypo HDL, while 9 (6.42%) have hypertriglyceridemia. On the other hand, out of hyperglycemic patients: 5 (3.5%) had hypo HDL, and 1 (0.7%) had hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusion. Around two-thirds of undiagnosed participants had at least one lipid abnormality. None of them were aware of having dyslipidemia. The prevalence of undiagnosed dyslipidemia was higher than the prevalence of undiagnosed glucose intolerance, and diabetes. This suggests that dyslipidemia plays a major role in developing diabetes. Hence, profound efforts should be done to manage and treat those with dyslipidemia, in order to prevent progression to type II diabetes mellitus.

Research Article

Apolipoprotein E2 Genotype Is Associated with a 2-Fold Increase in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results from a Long-Term Observational Study

Background. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease, but its interaction with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) long-term incidence is unknown. We investigated the association between APOE genotype and long-term (i) CV events and (ii) T2DM incidence in a Southern European primary prevention cohort. Methods. We assessed individual APOE genotypes in a total of 436 patients followed at a lipid clinic, with a 15-year median follow-up time. We collected data on major CV events (CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and T2DM development. Results. No differences were found regarding major CV event incidence among the different APOE genotypes. However, after excluding 39 patients with a prior history of T2DM, APOE2 carriers displayed a higher incidence of T2DM during follow-up (42.2%) than APOE3 (27.1%) and APOE4 (28.7%) carriers. The age-, sex-, triglycerides-, and statin usage-adjusted OR for T2DM incidence in APOE2 carriers was 1.8 (95%CI 1.1-2.9, p=0.03), compared with wild-type APOE3. To address the role of statins as a confounder, we analyzed T2DM incidence in statin-treated patients. Statin-treated APOE2 carriers also had a higher T2DM incidence (57.9%), in comparison with APOE3 homozygotes (31.6%) and APOE4 carriers (32.5%). After adjustment for confounding, APOE2 carriers on statins displayed a similar twofold increase in T2DM risk compared to APOE3 homozygotes (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-4.0, p=0.03). Conclusion. Our findings suggest a twofold increase in T2DM incidence in APOE2 carriers. This may prompt for a specific glucose dysmetabolism follow-up that might be tailored on the APOE genotype.

Research Article

Scavenger Receptor Class B Member 1 Independent Uptake of Transthyretin by Cultured Hepatocytes Is Regulated by High Density Lipoprotein

Thyroid hormone (thyroxine, T4) is essential for the normal function of all cell types and is carried in serum bound to several proteins including transthyretin. Recently, evidence has emerged of alternate pathways for hormone entry into cells that are dependent on hormone binding proteins. Transthyretin and transthyretin bound T4 are endocytosed by placental trophoblasts through the high-density lipoprotein receptor, Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 (SR-B1). High density lipoprotein (HDL) affects the expression and function of SR-B1 in trophoblast cells. SR-B1 is also expressed in hepatocytes and we sought to determine if hepatocyte SR-B1 was involved in transthyretin or transthyretin-T4 uptake and whether uptake was affected by HDL. Transthyretin and transthyretin-T4 uptake by hepatocytes is not dependent on SR-B1. HDL treatment reduced SR-B1 expression. However, pretreatment of hepatocytes with HDL increased uptake of transthyretin-T4. Knockdown of SR-B1 expression using siRNA also increased transthyretin-T4 uptake. Coaddition of HDL to transthyretin uptake experiments blocked both transthyretin and transthyretin-T4 uptake. Hepatocyte uptake of transthyretin-T4 uptake is influenced by, but is not dependent on, SR-B1 expression. HDL also decreases transthyretin-T4 uptake and therefore diet or drugs may interfere with this process. This suggests that multiple lipoprotein receptors may be involved in the regulation of uptake of transthyretin-T4 in a cell-type specific manner. Further study is required to understand this important process.

Clinical Study

Acacia Senegal (Gum Arabic) Supplementation Modulate Lipid Profile and Ameliorated Dyslipidemia among Sickle Cell Anemia Patients

Background. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited haemolytic anemia with a variable course and severity. Knowledge of prognostic biomarkers may help in the establishment of therapeutic intervention, management, and follow-up of patients. There have been scattered reports of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased triglyceride (TG) in SCD patients. In addition, TG levels have been suggested to be elevated in patients with increased endothelial activation. An increased TG level has been associated with haemolysis, vascular dysfunction, and increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Gum Arabic (GA) is an edible, dried, gummy exudate from the acacia Senegal tree. Several studies on GA ingestion have shown reduced plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations in both animals and humans. We investigated GA’s therapeutic potential to modulate serum lipids in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods. This study recruited and documented secondary outcomes in 47 patients (aged 5–42 years) carrying hemoglobin SS. The patients received 30 g/day of GA for 12 weeks. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and HDL were measured before and after GA intake. Cobas C311 (Roche, Germany) automated chemistry analyser was used for direct determination of the values of the lipid profile. Results. GA significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC), TG, and LDL (p = 0.006, 0.04, and 0.02, resp.). GA showed no effect on HDL level. Baseline serum TG and LDL correlated significantly with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level, which is known as an oxidative stress marker (p = 0.003 and 0.04, resp.). None of the lipid profile elements correlated with age. Conclusion. Our results revealed that dyslipidemia in sickle cell patients is associated with oxidative stress but not associated with age. The findings showed that GA significantly decreased TC, LDL, and TG levels, revealing a novel effect of GA, which is considered a natural dietary fibre that can modulate lipid profile in patients with sickle cell anemia. Trial Registration. This retrospective trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02467257 on 3 June, 2015.

Journal of Lipids
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