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Journal of Lipids has been accepted into Food Science & Technology Abstracts.Go to Table of Contents
Journal of Lipids provides a forum for scientists, physicians, and nutritionists working in all aspects of lipids research. Topics covered include their biochemistry, synthesis, function in health and disease, and nutrition.
Journal of Lipids maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Dyslipidemia and Associated Risk Factors in the Elderly Population in Asmara, Eritrea: Results from a Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. The ultimate goal of the study was to approximate the burden and patterns of dyslipidemia in a subset of the elderly population (≥60–85 years) living in Asmara, Eritrea, and to identify modifiable risk drivers. Methods. A total of 319 (145 (45.5%) male vs. 174 (54.5%) female, mean (68.06 ± 6.16 years), participants from randomly selected estates within Asmara were enrolled. Demographic and medical information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anthropometric, lipid panel, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and blood pressure (BP) measurements were subsequently taken. Results. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 70.5%. The proportions of dyslipidemias were (in order of decreasing frequency) high TC (51.2%), LDL-C (43.7%), low HDL-C (28.2%), and TG (27.6%). The average (±SD) concentrations in mg/dL of TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TG, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C were , , , , , , and , respectively. Furthermore, 17.5%, 21.6%, 11.0%, and 5.0% had abnormalities in 1, 2, 3, and 4 lipid disorders with the copresence of TC+LDL-C abnormalities dominating. Regarding National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel risk strata, 18.5%, 14.5%, 28.2%, and 12.9% were in high or very high-risk categories for TC, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C, respectively. The high burden of dyslipidemia coexisted with an equally high burden of abdominal obesity (43.1%), (16%), hypertension (28.5%), and physical inactivity. Overall, dyslipidemia was associated with sex (females: , , ) and daily physical activity—higher in individuals undertaking physical activity for <1 hour (, , ), 1-2 hours (, , ), and 2-3 hours (, , ) (Ref: >3 hours). Additional associations included increasing FPG (, , ), and BMI (, , ). These factors, along with waist circumference (WC), consumption of traditional foods, systolic BP, and diastolic BP, were, with some variations, associated with disparate dyslipidemias. Conclusions. The burden of dyslipidemia in the elderly population in Asmara is high. Modifiable risk drivers included FPG, WC, physical inactivity, and low consumption of traditional food. Overall, efforts directed at scaling up early recognition and treatment, including optimal pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy, at all levels of care, should be instituted.
Lipoproteins as Markers for Monitoring Cancer Progression
Lipoproteins are among the contributors of energy for the survival of cancer cells. Studies indicate there are complex functions and metabolism of lipoproteins in cancer. The current review is aimed at providing updates from studies related to the monitoring of lipoproteins in different types of cancer. This had led to numerous clinical and experimental studies. The review covers the major lipoproteins such as LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This is mainly due to increasing evidence from clinical and experimental studies that relate association of lipoproteins with cancer. Generally, a significant association exists between LDL-C with carcinogenesis and high oxLDL with metastasis. This warrants further investigations to include Mendelian randomization design and to be conducted in a larger population to confirm the significance of LDL-C and its oxidized form as prognostic markers of cancer.
Current Management Guidelines on Hyperlipidemia: The Silent Killer
Given the high incidence of cardiovascular events in the United States, strict control of modifiable risk factors is important. Pharmacotherapy is helpful in maintaining control of modifiable risk factors such as elevated lipids or hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemia can lead to atherosclerotic disease which may increase the risk of acute coronary events. Statin therapy has long been a mainstay in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, but while highly regarded, statin therapy also has side effects that may lead to patient noncompliance. Therefore, various medicines are being developed to manage hypercholesterolemia. This paper will discuss the role that lipids play in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic disease, review the current lipid management guidelines, and discuss new treatment options that are alternatives to statin therapy.
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Iran: Findings from the Four-Year FH Registry
Background. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disease. Its diagnosis in Iran was uncommon. Iran registry of FH (IRFH) has been started from 2017 from Isfahan. In this study, we report the four-year FH registry. Methods. The Iran FH registry is an ongoing study which is followed by a dynamic cohort. It has been started from 2017. The patients are selected from laboratories due to high cholesterol level and who have history of premature cardiovascular disease. The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria are used for the detection of FH. Cascade screening is performed for detection of first-degree relative of patients. Results. Among the 997 individuals included in this registry, they were 522 (mean age year), 141 (mean age year), and 129 (mean age year) patients from laboratories, premature cardiovascular disease, and relatives, respectively. In total, 263 patients were diagnosed with probable or definite FH, and others were in the possible group. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) level was in the laboratory group and 54.9% of patients were on LLT treatment. In patients with premature cardiovascular disease and FH, the LDL level was and was on LLT treatment. The LDL concentration in the first relative of FH patients was and 45.7% of them are on LLT therapy. Conclusions. Most of FH patients were underdiagnosed and undertreated before their inclusion in the IRFH. Cascade screening helps in the improvement of diagnosis.
Ipomea batatas Leaf Powder from Cameroon: Antioxidant Activity and Antihyperlipidemic Effect in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet
The present study consists of analyzing the phytochemical composition of Ipomoea batatas leaf powders and evaluating their antihyperlipidemic effect on rats receiving a high-fat diet. Ipomoea batatas leaves were collected from four agroecological areas of Cameroon, and powders were obtained after washing, drying, grinding, and sieving. Standard analytical methods were used to determine the phytochemical composition of two varieties (IRAD-tib1yellow-V1 and IRAD-1112white-V2) from North Z1, Adamawa Z2, West Z3, Center Z4. The effect of I. batatas leaf powder on lipid metabolism was assessed in vivo by feeding different groups of rats with a high-fat diet supplemented with 5 and 10% of I. batatas leaf powder during 30 days. At the end of the experimentation, total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL- (low-density lipoprotein-) cholesterol, HDL- (High-density lipoprotein-) cholesterol, ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase), ALAT (alanine aminotransferase), and creatinine were measured using commercial enzymatic kits (Spinreact, Spain). The results of phytochemical analysis of I. batatas leaf powders revealed that the total phenol content ranged from 660.173 mg GAE/100 gDW (Z1V2) to 657.76 mg GAE/100 gDW (Z3V2), the flavonoids content ranged from 282.25 mgEC/100 gDW (Z3V1) to 325.05 mgEC/100 gDW (Z4V2), and the anthraquinone content ranged from 324.05 mg/100 gDW (Z3V2) to 326.72 mg/100 gDW (Z4V2). The total antioxidant capacity ranged from 19.00 (Z1V1) to 23.48 mg AAE/gDW (Z3V2), while the IC50 ranged from 1.58 mg/mL (Z1V1) to 3.08 mg/mL (Z3V2). Rats fed a high-fat diet and supplemented with 5 and 10% of I. batatas leaf powder showed a significant () reduction in body weight compared to the control with a reduction rate ranging from 6 to 10%. The consumption of I. batatas leaf powder for 30 days significantly () reduced serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ALAT, and creatinine level. These results suggest the use of I. batatas leaves as a phytomedicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Changing Perspectives on HDL: From Simple Quantity Measurements to Functional Quality Assessment
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) comprises a heterogeneous group of particles differing in size, density, and composition. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have long been suggested to indicate cardiovascular risk, inferred from multiple epidemiological studies. The failure of HDL-C targeted interventions and genetic studies has raised doubts on the atheroprotective role of HDL-C. The current consensus is that HDL-C is neither a biomarker nor a causative agent of cardiovascular disorders. With better understanding of the complex nature of HDL which comprises a large number of proteins and lipids with unique functions, recent focus has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality in terms of atheroprotective functions. The current research is focused on developing laboratory assays to assess HDL functions for cardiovascular risk prediction. Also, HDL mimetics designed based on the key determinants of HDL functions are being investigated to modify cardiovascular risk. Improving HDL functions by altering its composition is the key area of future research in HDL biology to reduce cardiovascular risk.
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