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Journal of Lipids has been accepted into Food Science & Technology Abstracts.Go to Table of Contents
Journal of Lipids provides a forum for scientists, physicians, and nutritionists working in all aspects of lipids research. Topics covered include their biochemistry, synthesis, function in health and disease, and nutrition.
Journal of Lipids maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Modulation of Arginase-2 mRNA Levels by ω-3 PUFAs and Aspirin in Asthmatic Human Lung Fibroblasts
Airway remodeling (AR) increases disease severity, and morbidity of asthmatic patients by contributing to irreversible airflow obstruction and progressive declines in lung function. Arginase isoenzymes and the downstream enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) have been implicated in the hyperplastic and fibrotic changes of AR, respectively. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and resolvin metabolites have anti-AR effects, but whether they are mediated through the arginase pathway is unclear. Our study intended to determine the effects of the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resolvin D1 (RvD1), TH1 cytokines, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), cAMP, and dexamethasone (DEX) on the expression of arginase isoenzymes arginase 1 (ARG1) and arginase 2 (ARG2), ODC, and OAT in human lung fibroblasts (HLF) from normal (NHLF) and diseased (DHLF) asthmatic donors using reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our data showed that EPA and EPA+DHA downregulated ARG2 mRNA 2-fold in both types of HLF. DHA, RvD1, and DEX did not alter mRNA levels for any of the genes studied. EPA lowered the ARG2 protein levels in DHLF, but did not affect those levels in NHLF. ASA upregulated ARG2 mRNA 5-fold and 7-fold in NHLF and DHLF, respectively, TH1 cytokines downregulated ARG2, ODC, and OAT mRNA in DHLF 10-fold, 2-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively, and cAMP downregulated ARG2 mRNA 2-fold in DHLF. These results are the first to show a direct effect of ω-3 PUFAs on ARG2 mRNA levels and provide further evidence for a role of ω-3 PUFAs in AR.
Chemical Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Fontitrygon margarita (Günther, 1870) Liver Oil
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characteristics and antibacterial activity of Fontitrygon margarita liver oil against the bacteria responsible for food poisoning. Methods. Oils were extracted from F. margarita liver using two methods (exudation and cooking-pressing) and analyses by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Quality indexes were determined using standard methods and the fatty acid profile was carried out by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Antibacterial activities of these oils, their emulsion, and their interactions with common antibiotics were evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Results. Extraction yield was higher with cooking-pressing (16.90%) compared to exudation (14.49%). The quality indexes of both oils were conformed to Codex Alimentarius Standard. Thiobarbituric acid index was higher with exudation compared to cooking-pressing (3.20 ± 0.14 and 2.36 ± 0.14 μmol MDA/kg, respectively) while acid, iodine, peroxide, and anisidine values did not significantly vary with the extraction methods (2.15-2.30 mgKOH/g, 102.42-106.65 gI2/100 g, 3.34-3.57 meqO2/kg, and 2.85-3.32 respectively). FTIR analyses clearly show that the two spectra are similar (no differences in the frequency and absorbance of their bands). The fatty acid profile revealed that, regardless of the extraction methods, F. margarita oil is richer in monounsaturated (55.97-55.41%) followed by polyunsaturated (28.17-28.52%) and saturated fatty acids (15.86-16.07%). Moreover, these oils showed antibacterial activity on all the bacteria strains tested with MICs between 16 and 256 mg/ml. Regardless of the extraction methods, emulsions showed higher activity (6.25 ≤ MIC ≤25 mg/ml) compared to crude oils. Additionally, F. margarita liver oil potentiated the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and chloramphenicol. Conclusion. These results showed the effectiveness of Fontitrygon margarita liver oil against some bacteria responsible for food poisoning, thus demonstrating their antibacterial properties which could be due to their chemical composition.
LipoxinA4 as a Potential Prognostic Marker of COVID-19
This pilot study aimed to determine early changes of LXA4 levels among the hospitalized patients confirmed as COVID-19 cases following the clinical management and its correlation with commonly used inflammatory markers, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), c-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin. Thirty-one adult hospitalized patients infected with the non-severe COVID-19 were included. LXA4 levels were measured at the baseline and 48-72 hours after hospitalization. Accordingly, ESR and CRP levels were collected on the first day of hospitalization. Moreover, the maximum serum ferritin levels were determined during the five days. LXA4 levels significantly increased at 48-72 hours compared to the baseline. ESR, CRP, and ferritin levels were positively correlated with the increased LXA4. In contrast, aging was shown to negatively correlate with the increased LXA4 levels. LXA4 may be known as a valuable marker to assess the treatment response among non-elderly patients with non-severe COVID-19. Furthermore, LXA4 could be considered as a potential treatment option under inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to clarify LXA4 role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, as well as the balance between such pro-resolving mediators and inflammatory parameters.
Sexual Dimorphism and Sex-2D : 4D Interactions on Fasting Lipid Variables in an Adult Ghanaian Population
Prenatal hormone exposure has been suggested as a correlate of adult circulating estrogen and testosterone. If this observation is true, then prenatal hormone exposure may have an association with lipid homeostasis in adulthood. The study sought to investigate sexual dimorphism and the interactions between the putative marker of prenatal hormone exposure (2D : 4D) and sex on adult fasting plasma lipid variables. The study was cross-sectional from June to December 2021 at the University for Development Studies. The participants were between 18 and 30 years of age and consisted of 206 healthy persons (). The right hand (2D : 4DR), the left hand (2D : 4DL), and the right-left 2D : 4D difference (Dr-l) were measured using computer-assisted analysis. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for lipid variables including total cholesterol (TCHOL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There were no significant differences in the 2D : 4D ratio and lipid variables between males and females. However, after adjusting for age and BMI, the 2D : 4DR () and the 2D : 4DL () increased with increasing fasting plasma HDL-C on average. Moreover, there were significant interactions between sex and the 2D : 4DR () and also, the 2D : 4DL () on fasting plasma HDL-C. The relationship between HDL-C and the 2D : 4D ratio was positive in females but negative in males. The 2D : 4DR accounted for about 54.9% and 46.0% while the 2D : 4DL accounted for about 48.2% and 14.0% of the variabilities in fasting plasma HDL-C in females and males, respectively. Prenatal hormone exposure may partly account for the sexual dimorphism in adult lipid homeostasis.
Impact of Alexithymia on the Lipid Profile in Major Depressed Individuals
Background. The cooccurrence of major depression and dyslipidaemia is associated with negative cardiovascular outcome, which seems to justify a better identification of the factors favouring the development of dyslipidaemia in major depressed individuals. In the literature, there are arguments in favour of a special relationship between dyslipidaemia and alexithymia. However, despite a high prevalence of alexithymia in major depressed individuals, no study has investigated the impact of this personality trait on the lipid profile in this particular subpopulation. Given these elements, the aim of this study was therefore to investigate the risk of dyslipidaemia associated with alexithymia in major depressed individuals to allow better cardiovascular prevention in this subpopulation. Subjects and Methods. Demographic and polysomnographic data from 242 major depressed individuals recruited from the clinical database of the sleep laboratory were analysed. Only individuals with a diagnosis of dyslipidaemia according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation at admission were included in the “dyslipidaemia” group. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk of dyslipidaemia associated with alexithymia in major depressed individuals. Results. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 43.8% in our sample of major depressed individuals. After adjusting for the main confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that alexithymia was a risk factor for dyslipidaemia in major depressed individuals. Conclusions. In this study, we found that alexithymia is a risk factor for dyslipidaemia in major depressed individuals, which seems to justify better identification and adequate management of this personality trait in order to allow a better lipid profile in this subpopulation at high cardiovascular risk.
Age- and Diet-Dependent Changes in Hepatic Lipidomic Profiles of Phospholipids in Male Mice: Age Acceleration in Cyp2b-Null Mice
Increases in traditional serum lipid profiles are associated with obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Recent lipidomic analysis has indicated changes in serum lipidome profiles, especially in regard to specific phosphatidylcholines, associated with obesity. However, little work has evaluated murine hepatic liver lipidomic profiles nor compared these profiles across age, high-fat diet, or specific genotypes, in this case the lack of hepatic Cyp2b enzymes. In this study, the effects of age (9 months old), high-fat diet (4.5 months old), and the loss of three primarily hepatic xeno- and endobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 (Cyp) enzymes, Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, and Cyp2b13 (Cyp2b-null mice), on the male murine hepatic lipidome were compared. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis show that age perturbs hepatic phospholipid profiles and serum lipid markers the most compared to young mice, followed by a high-fat diet and then loss of Cyp2b. Several lipid biomarkers such as PC/PE ratios, PE 38 : 6, and LPC concentrations indicate greater potential for NAFLD and hypertension with mixed effects in Cyp2b-null mice(less NAFLD and greater hypertension-associated markers). Lipid profiles from older mice contain greater total and n-6 fatty acids than normal diet (ND)-fed young mice; however, surprisingly, young Cyp2b-null mice contain high n-6 : n-3 ratios. Overall, the lack of Cyp2b typically enhanced adverse physiological parameters observed in the older (9 mo) mice with increased weight gain combined with a deteriorating cholesterol profile, but not necessarily all phospholipid profiles were adversely perturbed.
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