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Changing Perspectives on HDL: From Simple Quantity Measurements to Functional Quality AssessmentRead the full article
Journal of Lipids provides a forum for scientists, physicians, and nutritionists working in all aspects of lipids research. Topics covered include their biochemistry, synthesis, function in health and disease, and nutrition.
Journal of Lipids maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Effects of Starvation on the Levels of Triglycerides, Diacylglycerol, and Activity of Lipase in Male and Female Drosophila Melanogaster
We studied the effects of starvation on changes in neutral lipids in male and female Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) at different ages. When flies were subjected to starvation, the mortality rate was observed to be age- and gender-dependent: male flies died earlier as compared to female flies, and older flies died earlier than younger flies. There was an increase in the number of dead flies and the levels of diacylglycerol (DG) with starvation time. This increase in DG was observed much earlier in male flies as compared to female flies, which correlated with earlier death in male flies during starvation in comparison to female flies. We also analyzed the levels of triglycerides (TG) and lipase activity during starvation of flies. The levels of TG decreased depending upon the duration of starvation in both male and female flies. Interestingly, we observed that like DG, there was also an increase in lipase activity due to starvation, which also correlated with earlier death in male flies as compared to female flies. Our results suggest that increase in DG levels and lipase activity due to starvation may be the main cause of death in the flies.
Risk Factors Associated with Statin-Associated Muscle Symptoms in Patients Attending a Specialized Regional Lipid Clinic
Background. Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are the major side effects reported for statins. Data from previous studies suggest that 7–29% of patients on statin had associated muscle symptoms. In the UK, there is a lack of corresponding data on SAMS and factors associated with the development of SAMS. Objective. This analysis is aimed at establishing the prevalence of SAMS and identifying major contributory risk factors in patients attending a lipid clinic. Methods. Clinical records of 535 consecutive patients, who visited the lipid clinic in the University Hospitals of Leicester, were studied retrospectively between 2009 and 2012. SAMS were defined by the presence of muscle symptoms with two or more different statins. Patients who reported muscle symptoms to statin with one or no rechallenge were excluded. The association of SAMS with clinical characteristics such as age and BMI, sex, smoking, excess alcohol, comorbidities, and medications was tested for statistical significance. A binomial logistic regression model was applied to adjust for risk factors significantly associated with SAMS. Results. The prevalence of SAMS was found to be 11%. On unadjusted analysis, the mean age of patients who had SAMS was significantly higher than those without SAMS ( years vs. years, respectively, ). Nonsmokers were more likely to develop SAMS in comparison to active smokers (). Patients taking antihypertensive medications were more likely to develop SAMS (). In binomial logistic regression analysis, only age was positively and significantly associated with SAMS after adjusting for other risk factors (, ). Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the largest cohort of patients with SAMS in the United Kingdom. Our data suggest that the prevalence of SAMS is 11% and increased age is a risk factor associated with the development of SAMS in our cohort of patients.
Overconsumption of Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) versus Deficiency of Omega-3 PUFAs in Modern-Day Diets: The Disturbing Factor for Their “Balanced Antagonistic Metabolic Functions” in the Human Body
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contain ≥2 double-bond desaturations within the acyl chain. Omega-3 (n-3) and Omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs are the two known important families in human health and nutrition. In both Omega families, many forms of PUFAs exist: α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the n-3 family and linoleic acid (LA), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) from the n-6 family are the important PUFAs for human health. Omega-3 and Omega-6 PUFAs are competitively metabolized by the same set of desaturation, elongation, and oxygenase enzymes. The lipid mediators produced from their oxidative metabolism perform opposing (antagonistic) functions in the human body. Except for DGLA, n-6 PUFA-derived lipid mediators enhance inflammation, platelet aggregation, and vasoconstriction, while those of n-3 inhibit inflammation and platelet aggregation and enhance vasodilation. Overconsumption of n-6 PUFAs with low intake of n-3 PUFAs is highly associated with the pathogenesis of many modern diet-related chronic diseases. The volume of n-6 PUFAs is largely exceeding the volume of n-3PUFAs. The current n-6/n-3 ratio is 20-50/1. Due to higher ratios of n-6/n-3 in modern diets, larger quantities of LA- and AA-derived lipid mediators are produced, becoming the main causes of the formation of thrombus and atheroma, the allergic and inflammatory disorders, and the proliferation of cells, as well as the hyperactive endocannabinoid system. Therefore, in order to reduce all of these risks which are due to overconsumption of n-6 PUFAs, individuals are required to take both PUFAs in the highly recommended n-6/n-3 ratio which is 4-5/1.
Distribution of Lipids and Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among Indian Expatriates in Qatar
Background. Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). If detected and managed in the early stages of life, can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CVD in a vulnerable population. Out of the 94 expatriate nationalities in Qatar, Indians constitute the most prominent single nationality, accounting for 21.8% of the total population (2,773,885 in 2019). This study aims to determine the status of the lipid profile among Indians in Qatar. Study Design. We conducted an observational retrospective study on lipid profile test data of Indian expatriates visiting a private healthcare facility in Qatar from Oct 17 to Oct 2018 to evaluate the gender and age-specific distribution of lipids and the prevalence of dyslipidemia. Results. Among the total 4483 Indian expatriates (3891 men and 592 women), the mean (SD) mg/dL levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were higher in men TC 196.9 (40.6), TG 168.9 (114.6), and LDL-C 122.9 (37.2) mg/dL compared to women TC 185 (38.1), TG 117.7 (78.2), and LDL-C 114.1 (31.1) mg/dL, value < 0.0001. Utilizing predefined National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) limits to categorize dyslipidemias; the greater prevalence of elevated TC, TG, and LDL-C was noted in men 44.7%, 45.8%, and 40.9% than women 31.6%, 22%, and 28.7%, respectively. However, women had higher levels of mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as 47.1 (9.8) mg/dL vs. 40.6 (8.3) mg/dL in men, value < 0.05, the prevalence of dyslipidemia, low HDL-C was also more 65.7% vs. 48.9% in women than men. With age, men showed a declining trend while women showed a rising trend for mean lipid levels as well as for the prevalence of dyslipidemia, high TC, TG, and LDL-C ( value < 0.0001). The mean HDL-C cholesterol increased, and the prevalence of dyslipidemia, low HDL-C decreased with age in both the genders. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate the higher mean lipid levels and prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia among Indian expatriate men than women counterparts at the younger age group. The screening programs and awareness campaigns must be initiated to prevent the early onset of dyslipidemia induced atherosclerosis leading to CVD. Future controlled studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemias among Indian migrants in Qatar.
The Novelty of Icosapent Ethyl in the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia and Alleviating Cardiovascular Risk
Hypertriglyceridemia is believed to be independently associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Lifestyle changes and dietary modifications are recommended for individuals with high serum triglyceride (TG) levels (150-499 mg/dl), and pharmacological therapy in addition to lifestyle modification is recommended when serum . A residual cardiovascular risk remains even in statin appropriate treated patients with CVD risk factors, and in this patient population, hypertriglyceridemia poses an independent and increased risk of ischemic events. In December 2019, the US FDA approved icosapent ethyl (IPE) as an adjunct to a maximally tolerated statin to reduce the risk of CVD events in adults with serum and have either established cardiovascular disease or diabetes and two or more additional CVD risk factors. Since IPE significantly decreases total ischemic events in the aforementioned patient population, it would be intriguing to know whether IPE alone added an advantage to lifestyle modification in the low-risk population, who has serum triglyceride between 150 mg/dl and 499 mg/dl.
Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Composition, and the Effect of Heating on the Reduction of Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids on Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Crude Seed Oil
The baobab seed oil has been consumed by humans due to its medicinal and nutrient values for many years. However, the consumption of baobab seed oil has been perceived by different communities as a health risk caused by cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFAs), which are carcinogenic ingredients present in the oil. This study investigated the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of baobab crude seed oil collected from semiarid areas in Tanzania and determined the effects of heating on the reduction of CPFAs. The baobab seed crude oil was extracted by Soxhlet using n-hexane, and the fatty acid composition of the baobab seed crude oil was determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Since CPFAs are resistant to lower temperatures, the effect of heating on the CPFA content of baobab crude seed oil was studied at 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C. The A. digitata crude seed oil was found to contain mainly twelve essential fatty acids and two different CPFAs. The most abundant fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid in all the baobab population hotspots occurring in Tanzania. There was no significant difference in most physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition across the different semiarid areas in Tanzania. The major breakdown of CPFAs occurs at 200°C, and that would be the optimal temperature recommended for the refining process of the baobab crude oil. The study recommended refining of the baobab oil at higher temperatures ranging from 200 - 250°C as the best way of reducing CPFAs.
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