Table 1: The physiologic role of all receptors and enzymes described in the paper and their association with insulin resistance and pathogenesis of NAFLD.

Gene symbolNamePhysiological roleInsulin resistanceDeregulation in NAFLDLoss-of-function models and NAFLDPolymorphisms associated with NAFLDReference

CETPCholesteryl ester transfer proteinFacilitates the transfer of TG from VLDL to LDL and CE from LDL to VLDLIncreasedIncreased + [1820]
HLHepatic lipaseFacilitates the clearance of TG from VLDL, increases formation of sdLDLIncreased[21]
LPLLipoprotein lipaseDecreasedDecreased[20]
APOC-3Apolipoprotein C-3Inhibitor of lipoprotein lipaseIncreasedIncreased[20, 22]
LDLRLDL receptorLDL intakeDecreased[23]
MTTPMicrosomal triglyceride transfer proteinFormation of VLDL in the liverDecreasedDevelop NAFLD + [2426]
SORT 1Sortilin 1Intracellular sorting receptors for apolipoprotein B100 lipoproteins + [2729]
PCSK9Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9Enhances LDLR degradationResistance[30, 31]
HSLHormone-sensitive lipaseAdipose tissue lipolysisIncreasedIncreasedResistance[32, 33]
CD-36Fatty acid translocase; scavenger receptorsFA uptake; oxidized LDL uptakeIncreasedIncreasedProtective[3440]
FASNFatty acid synthaseCatalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesisIncreasedProtective[41]
ACCAcetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylaseFatty acid biosynthesisProtective[42, 43]
SCD1Stearoyl-CoA desaturaseFatty acid desaturationProtective[44, 45]
ELOVL6Elongation of long-chain fatty acidsFatty acid elongationProtective[46]
FADS1 FADS2Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturasePUFA desaturationDecreased[47, 48]
SREBP-1cSterol regulatory element binding protein 1cIncreasedIncreasedProtective[49, 50]
ChREBPCarbohydrate regulatory element binding proteinIncreasedIncreasedProtective[51]
SIK2Serine/threonine salt-inducible kinase 2Increases ChREBPProtective[52]
CPT-1Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1Shuttles fatty acids into mitochondria, fatty acid oxidationDecreased[53, 54]
DGAT2Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2Triglyceride biosynthesisIncreasedIncreased/decreased in NASHImproves steatosis, aggravates NASH[5557]
ATGLAdipose triacylglycerol lipasePerforms the first step in TAG lysisDecreasedleads to steatosis[58, 59]
CGI-58Gene identification-58ATGL coactivatorleads to steatosis[60]
SREBP-2Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1cInduces cholesterol synthesisDecreased[23, 61]
LXRLiver X receptorInduces cholesterol secretion and FA synthesis, induces CD-36 and IdolIncreasedIncreased[6264]
IdolInducible degrader of the LDLRIdol catalyzes the ubiquitination of LDLR and targets it for degradationIncreasedIncreased[65]
ACAT2Acyl-Coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferaseCholesterol esterification; provides esterified cholesterol for incorporation into VLDL and storageProtection[66]
NPC1L1Niemann-Pick C1-like 1Cholesterol absorptionProtection[67, 68]