Table 1: Effect of bitter melon on body weight, obesity, and adipocyte dysfunction.

ModelDoseExperimental outcomeReference

HF diet induced fat rats0.75% and 1.5% extracts(i) Decreased body weight, visceral fat mass, plasma glucose, and TAG.
(ii) Increased plasma catecholamines.
[58]

HF diet induced fat rats0.75% and 1.5% extracts(i) Decreased body weight, visceral fat mass, plasma glucose, and TAG.
(ii) Increased adiponectin.
(iii) Increased UCP 1 in BAT and UCP 3 in red gastrocnemius muscle.
(iv) Increased expression of the transcription coactivator PGC-1α both in BAT and in gastrocnemius muscle.
[62]

Male C57BL/6J mice, 5 weeks old0.5 g/kg/day, 1.0 g/kg/day P extracts, or 0.2, 1.0 g/kg/day G extracts(i) Decreased body weight and visceral fat mass.
(ii) Decreased plasma glucose, TG, and total cholesterol (TC) but increased free fatty acid (FFA).
(iii) Increased mRNA expression of leptin, PPAR-γ, PPAR-α, and decreased expression of resistin.
[59]

Male Wistar rats fed HF diet5% (w/w) powder(i) Decreased body weight and adipose tissues.
(ii) Decreased TAG and cholesterol.
(iii) Increased adiponectin.
[63]

Over weight ratsAqueous extract 2 mL/day(i) Reduced elevated body weight and cholesterol, TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
(ii) Increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
[60]

HF diet fed male C57BL/6JNarl mice.15% and 30% of diet(i) Decreased body weight, retroperitoneal, epididymal, and inguinal fat deposition and adipocyte diameter.
(ii) Increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, cAMP-activated protein kinase (PKA), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in WAT.
(iii) Increased TNF-α concentration in the WAT accompanied by TUNEL-positive nuclei.
[61]

3T3-L1 cells(i) Decreased lipid accumulation and intracellular TGs.[64]

Primary human adipocyte(i) Inhibited adipocyte differentiation by reducing PPARγ, SREBP, and perilipin mRNA gene expression.
(ii) Increasing lipolysis in preadipocytes.
[65]