Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Lipids
Volume 2016, Article ID 7498508, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7498508
Research Article

8-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases Plasma and Hepatic Triglycerides via Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

1Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, 22-174-4 Narita, Kitakami, Iwate 024-0003, Japan
2Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Iwate Medical University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shiwa, Iwate 028-3694, Japan

Received 28 October 2015; Revised 16 March 2016; Accepted 29 March 2016

Academic Editor: Rosemary Lee Walzem

Copyright © 2016 Hidetoshi Yamada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. H. Blankenhorn and H. N. Hodis, “Atherosclerosis—reversal with therapy,” Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 172–179, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. Targher, C. P. Day, and E. Bonora, “Risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 14, pp. 1341–1350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. C. Weyer, J. E. Foley, C. Bogardus, P. A. Tataranni, and R. E. Pratley, “Enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size, but not obesity itself, predicts type II diabetes independent of insulin resistance,” Diabetologia, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1498–1506, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Schoonjans, B. Staels, and J. Auwerx, “The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and their effects on lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, vol. 1302, no. 2, pp. 93–109, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. D. Tugwood, I. Issemann, R. G. Anderson, K. R. Bundell, W. L. McPheat, and S. Green, “The mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor recognizes a response element in the 5' flanking sequence of the rat acyl CoA oxidase gene,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 433–439, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  6. B. Zhang, S. L. Marcus, F. G. Sajjadi et al., “Identification of a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element upstream of the gene encoding rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 89, no. 16, pp. 7541–7545, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. A. Kliewer, S. S. Sundseth, S. A. Jones et al., “Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 4318–4323, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. S. L. Marcus, K. S. Miyata, B. Zhang, S. Subramani, R. A. Rachubinski, and J. P. Capone, “Diverse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors bind to the peroxisome proliferator-responsive elements of the rat hydratase/dehydrogenase and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase genes but differentially induce expression,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 5723–5727, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Bernal-Mizrachi, S. Weng, C. Feng et al., “Dexamethasone induction of hypertension and diabetes is PPAR-alpha dependent in LDL receptor-null mice,” Nature Medicine, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1069–1075, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. J. K. Reddy and T. Hashimoto, “Peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α: an adaptive metabolic system,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 21, pp. 193–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. B. M. Forman, J. Chen, and R. M. Evans, “Hypolipidemic drugs, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and eicosanoids are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 4312–4317, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. B. Desvergne and W. Wahli, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 649–688, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. S. Lee, T. Pineau, J. Drago et al., “Targeted disruption of the alpha isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene in mice results in abolishment of the pleiotropic effects of peroxisome proliferators,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 3012–3022, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. A. Tenenbaum and E. Z. Fisman, “Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 11, article 125, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. L. Berglund, J. D. Brunzell, A. C. Goldberg et al., “Evaluation and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 2969–2989, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Miller, N. J. Stone, C. Ballantyne et al., “Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 20, pp. 2292–2333, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. B. M. Forman, P. Tontonoz, J. Chen, R. P. Brun, B. M. Spiegelman, and R. M. Evans, “15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPAR gamma,” Cell, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 803–812, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Dowell, V. J. Peterson, T. Mark Zabriskie, and M. Leid, “Ligand-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α conformational change,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 3, pp. 2013–2020, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Krey, O. Braissant, F. L'Horset et al., “Fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic agents identified as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assay,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 779–791, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Göttlicher, E. Widmark, Q. Li, and J. A. Gustafsson, “Fatty acids activate a chimera of the clofibric acid-activated receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 4653–4657, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. K. Yu, W. Bayona, C. B. Kallen et al., “Differential activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by eicosanoids,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 41, pp. 23975–23983, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. E. Johnson, M. Holloway, R. Vogel et al., “Structural requirements and cell-type specificity for ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 63, no. 1–3, pp. 1–8, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. H. Yamada, E. Oshiro, S. Kikuchi, M. Hakozaki, H. Takahashi, and K.-I. Kimura, “Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids from the Pacific krill show high ligand activities for PPARs,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 895–904, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Palmentieri, I. de Sio, V. La Mura et al., “The role of bright liver echo pattern on ultrasound B-mode examination in the diagnosis of liver steatosis,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 485–489, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. P. Vanden Heuvel, D. Kreder, B. Belda et al., “Comprehensive analysis of gene expression in rat and human hepatoma cells exposed to the peroxisome proliferator WY14,643,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 185–198, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Ip, G. C. Farrell, G. Robertson, P. Hall, R. Kirsch, and I. Leclercq, “Central role of PPARalpha-dependent hepatic lipid turnover in dietary steatohepatitis in mice,” Hepatology, vol. 38, pp. 123–132, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Sato, H. Kawano, T. Notsu et al., “Antiobesity effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced obesity: importance of hepatic lipogenesis,” Diabetes, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 2495–2504, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y.-H. Yu and H. N. Ginsberg, “Adipocyte signaling and lipid homeostasis: sequelae of insulin-resistant adipose tissue,” Circulation Research, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 1042–1052, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Klaus, “Adipose tissue as a regulator of energy balance,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 241–250, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. L. M. Sanderson, T. Degenhardt, A. Koppen et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) but not PPARalpha serves as a plasma free fatty acid sensor in liver,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 6257–6267, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. E. Kinsella, B. Lokesh, and R. A. Stone, “Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and amelioration of cardiovascular disease: possible mechanisms,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Folch, M. Lees, and G. H. Sloane Stanley, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 226, pp. 497–509, 1957. View at Google Scholar