40 boys with ADHD and 39 matched, typically developing controls
Aged 8–14 years
10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of EPA/DHA or placebo
EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo.
Subjects with more than 25% reduction in ADHD symptoms were classified as responders. Compared to nonresponders, the 6-month responders had significantly greater n-3 increase at 3 months and decrease in n-6/n-3 ratio at 3 and 6 months ().
90 Australian children with ADHD symptoms higher than the 90th percentile on the Conners’ Rating Scales
7 to 12 years
Supplements rich in EPA, DHA, or safflower oil
Increased erythrocyte DHA was associated with improved word reading and lower parent ratings of oppositional behaviour. These effects were more evident in a subgroup of 17 children with learning difficulties.
Capsule containing n3 and n6 (fish oil) and cold-pressed evening primrose oil
Statistically significant improvement was not found at 3 months of treatment between groups but was evident at 6 months of treatment () with inattention, impulsiveness, and cooperation with parents and teachers.
A subgroup of 26% responded with more than 25% reduction of ADHD symptoms and a drop of Clinical Global Impression scores to the near-normal range. After 6 months, 47% of all showed such improvement. Responders tended to have ADHD inattentive subtype and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders.
40 AD/HD (including eight AD/HD-suspected) children who were mostly without medication
Foods containing fish oil (fermented soybean milk, bread rolls, and steamed bread; 3.6 g DHA/week from these foods)
DHA-containing foods did not improve ADHD-related symptoms. Visual short-term memory and errors of commission (continuous performance) significantly improved in the control group compared with the changes over time in the DHA group.