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Journal of Lipids
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9751756, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9751756
Review Article

Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Toyama College, 444 Mizuguchi, Gankai-ji, Toyama 930-0193, Japan
2Kyushu University, 5-38-23 Najima, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-0043, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Hiroyuki Takeuchi

Received 7 April 2017; Revised 12 June 2017; Accepted 25 July 2017; Published 30 August 2017

Academic Editor: Kamal A. Amin

Copyright © 2017 Hiroyuki Takeuchi and Michihiro Sugano. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], <approximately 2 g/day). Few intervention trials examined the effect of TFAs on blood cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone.