Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Marine Biology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 241374, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/241374
Research Article

Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

1Department of Geography, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 445 Saunders Hall, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
2The Marine Biology Program, College of Natural Sciences, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 2450 Campus Road, Dean Hall, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
3Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 8 June 2010; Accepted 3 September 2010

Academic Editor: Robert J. Toonen

Copyright © 2011 John N. Kittinger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Spalding, C. Ravilious, and E. P. Green, World Atlas of Coral Reefs, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 2001.
  2. E. Whittingham, J. Campbell, and P. Townsley, Poverty and Reefs: A Global Overview, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, France, 2003, DFID–IMM–IOC/UNESCO, http://www.reefbase.org/key_topics/poverty_and_reefs.aspx.
  3. P. V. Kirch and T. L. Hunt, Eds., Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands: Prehistoric Environmental and Landscape Change, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn, USA, 1997.
  4. J. D. Bell, M. Kronen, A. Vunisea et al., “Planning the use of fish for food security in the Pacific,” Marine Policy, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 64–76, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. E. Johannes, Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1981.
  6. J. E. Cinner, T. Daw, and T. R. McClanahan, “Socioeconomic factors that affect artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery,” Conservation Biology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 124–130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Wilkinson, Ed., Status of Coral Reefs of the World, Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia, 2008.
  8. J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala et al., “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5635, pp. 955–958, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. B. C. Jackson, M. X. Kirby, W. H. Berger et al., “Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5530, pp. 629–637, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. The World Bank, “Scaling up marine management: the role of marine protected areas,” Tech. Rep. 36635 , GLB. The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2006, http://go.worldbank.org/HI04V9I0Z0. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. R. Bellwood, T. P. Hughes, C. Folke, and M. Nyström, “Confronting the coral reef crisis,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6994, pp. 827–833, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. David Hyrenbach, K. A. Forney, and P. K. Dayton, “Marine protected areas and ocean basin management,” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 437–458, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. M. Roberts, B. Halpern, S. R. Palumbi, and R. R. Warner, “Designing marine reserve networks: why small, isolated protected areas are not enough,” Conservation in Practice, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 10–17, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  14. B. S. Halpern, S. E. Lester, and K. L. McLeod, “Placing marine protected areas onto the ecosystem-based management seascape,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/02/16/0908503107.abstract. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. K. L. McLeod and H. M. Leslie, “Why ecosystem-based management?” in Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans, K. L. McLeod and H. M. Leslie, Eds., pp. 3–12, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  16. K. L. McLeod, J. Lubchenco, S. R. Palumbi, and A. A. Rosenberg, “Scientific consensus statement on marine ecosystem-based management,” The Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea (COMPASS), 2005.
  17. M. Ruckelshaus, T. Klinger, N. Knowlton, and D. P. DeMaster, “Marine ecosystem-based management in practice: scientific and governance challenges,” BioScience, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 53–63, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. M. Leslie and K. L. McLeod, “Confronting the challenges of implementing marine ecosystem-based management,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 540–548, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. McLeod and H. Leslie, Eds., Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans: Resilience Approaches, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
  20. K. K. Arkema, S. C. Abramson, and B. M. Dewsbury, “Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 525–532, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Christie, “Marine protected areas as biological successes and social failures in southeast Asia,” in Aquatic Protected Areas as Fisheries Management Tools: Design, Use, and Evaluation of These Fully Protected Areas, J. B. Shipley, Ed., pp. 155–164, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  22. P. Christie, B. J. McCay, M. L. Miller et al., “Toward developing a complete understanding: a social science research agenda for marine protected areas,” Fisheries, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 22–26, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. B. Mascia, “The human dimension of coral reef marine protected areas: recent social science research and its policy implications,” Conservation Biology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 630–632, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. B. Mascia, J. P. Brosius, T. A. Dobson et al., “Conservation and the social sciences,” Conservation Biology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 649–650, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. S. Pomeroy, M. B. Mascia, and R. B. Pollnac, “Marine protected areas: the social dimension,” in Report and Documentation of the Expert Workshop on Marine Protected Areas and Fisheries Management: Review of Issues and Considerations, Food and Agricultural Organization, Ed., pp. 149–181, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2006, FAO Fisheries Report no. 825 FIEP/R825. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. E. Cinner, “Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems,” Coral Reefs, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1035–1045, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Hanna, “Managing the human-ecological interface: marine resources as example and laboratory,” Ecosystems, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 736–741, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. N. Kittinger, K. N. Duin, and B. A. Wilcox, “Commercial fishing, conservation and compatibility in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands,” Marine Policy, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 208–217, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. P. Hughes, L. H. Gunderson, C. Folke et al., “Adaptive management of the great barrier reef and the grand canyon world heritage areas,” Ambio, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 586–592, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Olsson, C. Folke, and T. P. Hughes, “Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 28, pp. 9489–9494, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Fernandes, J. Day, A. Lewis et al., “Establishing representative no-take areas in the great barrier reef: large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas,” Conservation Biology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1733–1744, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. C. Day, “Zoning—lessons from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park,” Ocean and Coastal Management, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 139–156, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Pollnac, P. Christie, J. E. Cinner et al., “Marine reserves as linked social-ecological systems,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/02/16/0908266107.abstract. In press.
  34. A. Charles and L. Wilson, “Human dimensions of marine protected areas,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. P. Emory, Archaeology of Nihoa and Necker Islands, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 1928.
  36. P. L. Cleghorn, The Settlement and Abandonment of Two Hawaiian Outposts: Nihoa and Necker Islands, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 1988, occasional papers.
  37. K. Kikiloi, “Rebirth of an archipelago: sustaining a Hawaiian cultural identity for people and homeland,” in Hulili: Multidisplinary Research on Hawaiian Well-Being, vol. 6, pp. 73–114, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  38. C. Folke, F. S. Chapin III, and P. Olsson, “Transformations in ecosystem stewardship,” in Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: Resilience-Based Natural Resource Management in a Changing World, F. S. Chapin III, G. P. Kofinas, and C. Folke, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. E. DeMartini and A. M. Friedlander, “Spatial patterns of endemism in shallow-water reef fish populations of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 271, pp. 281–296, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Maragos and D. Gulko, Eds., Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Interim Results Emphasizing the 2000 Surveys, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2002.
  41. A. Friedlander et al., “The state of coral reef ecosystems of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands,” in The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States, J. E. Waddell and A. M. Clarke, Eds., vol. 73 of NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS, pp. 263–306, NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team, Silver Spring, Md, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. N. Kittinger, Historical ecology of coral reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2010.
  43. A. M. Friedlander and E. E. DeMartini, “Contrasts in density, size, and biomass of reef fishes between the northwestern and the main Hawaiian Islands: the effects of fishing down apex predators,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 230, pp. 253–264, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. J. Rauzon, Isles of Refuge: Wildlife and History of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2001.
  45. R. J. Shallenberger, “History of management in the Northwestern Hawaiin Islands,” Atoll Research Bulletin, no. 543, pp. 23–31, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. American Antiquities Act of 1906, 16 U.S.C. 431–433.
  47. Department of Commerce et al., “Final Rule, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument,” 2006, 71 Fed. Reg. 51134, Washington, DC, USA, August 2006. View at Google Scholar
  48. K. A. Selkoe, B. S. Halpern, C. M. Ebert et al., “A map of human impacts to a "pristine" coral reef ecosystem, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument,” Coral Reefs, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 635–650, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. A. Selkoe, B. S. Halpern, and R. J. Toonen, “Evaluating anthropogenic threats to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands,” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1149–1165, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Stieglitz, “New Hawaiian national monument,” 2006, SENRA Newsletter, October 2006. Section on Environmental and Natural Resource Administration (SENRA) of the American Society for Public Administration, pp. 2–4. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. J. Donohue, “How multiagency partnerships can successfully address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 700–702, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. M. Lavigne, “The Hawaiian monk seal: management of an endangered species,” in Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals, J. R. Twiss Jr. and R. R. Reeves, Eds., pp. 246–266, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  53. Memorandum of Agreement, “Memorandum of Agreement Among the State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for Promoting Coordinated Management of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument,” Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, December 2006.
  54. H. R. Bernard, Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, AltaMira Press, Oxford, UK, 2006.
  55. M. B. Miles and A. M. Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1994.
  56. B. Glaser and A. Strauss, The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Aldine, New York, NY, USA, 1967.
  57. P. Martin and B. Turner, “Grounded theory and organizational research,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 141–157, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  58. L. Schatzman, “Dimensional analysis: notes on an alternative approach to the grounding of theory on qualitative research,” in Social Organization and Social Process: Essays in Honor of Anselm Strauss, D. R. Maines, Ed., pp. 303–314, Aldine, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  59. L. Robrecht, “Grounded theory: evolving methods,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 5, pp. 169–177, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  60. G. Thomas and D. James, “Reinventing grounded theory: some questions about theory, ground and discovery,” British Educational Research Journal, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 767–795, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Olsson, C. Folke, V. Galaz, T. Hahn, and L. Schultz, “Enhancing the fit through adaptive co-management: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve, Sweden,” Ecology and Society, vol. 12, no. 1, article 28, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. Ostrom, “Scales, polycentricity, and incentives: designing complexity to govern complexity,” in Protection of Global Biodiversity: Converging Strategies, L. D. Guruswamy and J. A. McNeely, Eds., pp. 149–167, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  63. M. T. Imperial, “Institutional analysis and ecosystem-based management: the institutional analysis and development framework,” Environmental Management, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 449–465, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. Folke et al., “Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability,” Ecology and Society. In press.
  65. C. Argyris and D. A. Schön, Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA, 1978.
  66. C. M. Fiol and M. A. Lyles, “Organizational learning,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 803–813, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  67. F. Berkes, J. Colding, and C. Folke, Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003.
  68. C. Folke, T. Hahn, P. Olsson, and J. Norberg, “Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 441–473, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. I. Fazey, J. A. Fazey, J. Fischer et al., “Adaptive capacity and learning to learn as leverage for social-ecological resilience,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 375–380, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. North, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990.
  71. P. Olsson, Ö. Bodin, and C. Folke, “Building transformative capacity for ecosystem stewardship in social-ecological systems,” in Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance, D. Armitage and R. Plummer, Eds., Springer Series on Environmental Management, pp. 263–285, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. USCOP, An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century, U. S. Commission on Ocean Policy (USCOP), Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
  73. POC, America’s Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change. A Report to the Nation. Recommendations for a New Ocean Policy, Pew Oceans Commission (POC), The Pew Charitable Trusts, Arlington, Va, USA, 2003.
  74. T. M. Koontz and C. W. Thomas, “What do we know and need to know about the environmental outcomes of collaborative management?” Public Administration Review, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 111–121, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. T. Dietz, E. Ostrom, and P. C. Stern, “The struggle to govern the commons,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5652, pp. 1907–1912, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. Ostrom, J. Burger, C. B. Field, R. B. Norgaard, and D. Policansky, “Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5412, pp. 278–282, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. S. Holling, Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management, John Wiley & Sons, London, UK, 1978.
  78. C. S. Holling and G. K. Meffe, “Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management,” Conservation Biology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 328–337, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. N. Salafsky, R. Margoluis, and K. Redford, Adaptive Management: A Tool for Conservation Practitioners, Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
  80. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling, Eds., Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
  81. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light, Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  82. G. Brennan and J. Buchanan, The Reason of Rules: Constitutional Political Economy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986.
  83. L. B. Crowder, G. Osherenko, O. R. Young et al., “Resolving mismatches in U.S. ocean governance,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5787, pp. 617–618, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force, “Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force,” September 2009, The Executive Office of the President, The White House Council on Environmental Quality and the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force: Washington, DC, USA. View at Google Scholar
  85. The White House, “National Policy for the Oceans, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes,” 2009, Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, June 2009, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House: Washington, DC, USA. View at Google Scholar