Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Marine Biology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 106282, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/106282
Research Article

Summary of Reported Whale-Vessel Collisions in Alaskan Waters

1Division of Resource Management, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 140, Gustavus, AK 99826, USA
2Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK 99802, USA
3Department of Biology, University of Alaska Southeast Sitka Campus, 1332 Seward Avenue, Sitka, AK 99835, USA

Received 6 February 2012; Accepted 26 March 2012

Academic Editor: Frances Gulland

Copyright © 2012 Janet L. Neilson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. McLellan, S. Rommel, M. Moore, and D. A. Pabst, “Right whale necropsy protocol,” Final Report to NOAA Fisheries for Contract #40AANF112525, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. George, L. Philo, K. Hazard, D. Withrow, G. Carroll, and R. Suydam, “Frequency of killer whale (Orcinus orca) attacks and ship collisions based on scarring on bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock,” Arctic, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 247–255, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. N. Wiley, R. A. Asmutis, T. D. Pitchford, and D. P. Gannon, “Stranding and mortality of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the mid-Atlantic and southeast United States, 1985–1992,” Fishery Bulletin, vol. 93, pp. 196–205, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  4. I. N. Visser, “Propeller scars on and known home range of two orca (Orcinus orca) in New Zealand waters,” New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 33, pp. 635–642, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  5. P. B. Best, V. M. Peddemors, V. G. Cockcroft, and N. Rice, “Mortalities of right whales and related anthropogenic factors in South African waters, 1963–1998,” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 171–176, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Capella, L. Flórez-González, and P. Falk, “Mortality and anthropogenic harassment of humpback whales along the Pacific coast of Colombia,” Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 547–553, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. R. Knowlton and S. D. Kraus, “Mortality and serious injury of northern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the western North Atlantic Ocean,” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, vol. 2, pp. 1–15, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. W. Laist, A. R. Knowlton, J. G. Mead, A. S. Collet, and M. Podesta, “Collisions between ships and whales,” Marine Mammal Science, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 35–75, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. S. Jensen and G. K. Silber, “Large whale ship strike database,” NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-25, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. J. Moore, A. R. Knowlton, S. D. Kraus, W. A. McLellan, and R. K. Bonde, “Morphometry, gross morphology and available histopathology in North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) mortalities (1970–2002),” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 199–214, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Weinrich, “A review of worldwide collisions between whales and fast ferries,” Paper SC/56/BC9, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2005, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Weinrich, “A review of collisions between whales and whale watch boats,” Paper SC/57/WW8, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2005, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Panigada, G. Pesante, M. Zanardelli, F. Capoulade, A. Gannier, and M. T. Weinrich, “Mediterranean fin whales at risk from fatal ship strikes,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1287–1298, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. O. Lammers, A. A. Pack, and L. Davis, “Trends in whale/vessel collisions in Hawaiian waters,” Paper SC/59/BC14, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2007, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  15. K. Van Waerebeek, A. N. Baker, F. Félix et al., “Vessel collisions with small cetaceans worldwide and with large whales in the Southern Hemisphere, an initial assessment,” Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43–69, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Behrens and R. Constantine, “Large whale and vessel collisions in northern New Zealand,” Paper SC/60/BC9, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2008, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Carrillo and F. Ritter, “Increasing numbers of ship strikes in the Canary Islands: proposals for immediate action to reduce risk of vessel-whale collisions,” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 131–138, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. B. Douglas, J. Calambokidis, S. Raverty, S. J. Jeffries, D. M. Lambourn, and S. A. Norman, “Incidence of ship strikes of large whales in Washington State,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 88, pp. 1121–1132, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  19. F. Ritter, “Collisions of sailing vessels with cetaceans worldwide: first insights into a seemingly growing problem,” Paper SC/61/BC1, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2009, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Berman-Kowalewski, F. M. Gulland, S. Wilkin et al., “Association between blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) mortality and ship strikes along the California coast,” Aquatic Mammals, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  21. U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S. Code 1361 et seq).
  22. K. van Waerebeek and R. Leaper, “Report from the IWC vessel strike data standardisation group,” Paper SC/59/BC12, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2007, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  23. “Definitions,” Code of Federal Regulations, Title 50, Part 216.3.
  24. “Special prohibitions for endangered marine mammals,” Code of Federal Regulations, Title 50, Part 224.103.
  25. Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part 13, Subpart N.
  26. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #2007068, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  27. K. Wynne, Guide to Marine Mammals of Alaska, Alaska Sea Grant College Program, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 3rd edition, 2007.
  28. B. M. Allen and R. P. Angliss, “Alaska marine mammal stock assessments 2010,” NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-223, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  29. J. C. George, J. Zeh, R. Suydam, and C. Clark, “Abundance and population trend (1978–2001) of western arctic bowhead whales surveyed near Barrow, Alaska,” Marine Mammal Science, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 755–773, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. N. Zerbini, J. M. Waite, J. L. Laake, and P. R. Wade, “Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands,” Deep-Sea Research I, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1772–1790, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Calambokidis, E. A. Falcone, T. J. Quinn et al., “SPLASH: structure of populations, levels of abundance and status of humpback whales in the North Pacific,” Final Report for Contract AB133F-03-RP-00078, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  32. A. E. Punt and P. R. Wade, “Population status of the eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales in 2009,” NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-207, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  33. P. R. Wade, A. Kennedy, R. LeDuc et al., “The world's smallest whale population?” Biology Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 83–85, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. R. Wade, A. de Robertis, K. R. Hough et al., “Rare detections of North Pacific right whales in the Gulf of Alaska, with observations of their potential prey,” Endangered Species Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 99–109, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. M. Gende, A. N. Hendrix, K. R. Harris, B. Eichenlaub, J. Nielsen, and S. Pyare, “A Bayesian approach for understanding the role of ship speed in whale-ship encounters,” Ecological Applications, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 2232–2240, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  36. G. K. Silber, J. Slutsky, and S. Bettridge, “Hydrodynamics of a ship/whale collision,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 391, no. 1-2, pp. 10–19, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. S. M. Vanderlaan and C. T. Taggart, “Vessel collisions with whales: the probability of lethal injury based on vessel speed,” Marine Mammal Science, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 144–156, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. C. M. Gabriele, A. Jensen, J. L. Neilson, and J. M. Straley, “Preliminary summary of reported whale-vessel collisions in Alaskan waters: 1978–2006,” Paper SC/59/BC16, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2007, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  39. A. S. Jensen, J. L. Neilson, C. M. Gabriele, and J. M. Straley, “Summary of reported whale-vessel collisions in Alaskan waters: 1978–2008,” The Alaska Marine Science Symposium, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  40. S. T. Zimmerman, “A history of marine mammal stranding networks in Alaska, with notes on the distribution of the most commonly stranded cetacean species, 1975–1987,” in Marine Mammal Strandings in the United States—Proceedings of the 2nd Marine Mammal Stranding Workshop, J. E. Reynolds and D. K. Odell, Eds., pp. 43–53, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Report 98, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  41. H. Omura, K. Fujino, and S. Kimura, “Beaked whale Berardius bairdi of Japan, with notes on Ziphius cavirostris,” The Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute 10, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  42. C. Lockyer, “The age at sexual maturity of the southern fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) using annual layer counts in the ear plug,” Journal du Conseil, Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, vol. 34, pp. 276–294, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. G. Mead, “Survey of reproductive data for the beaked whales (Ziphiidae),” Reports of the International Whaling Commission, no. 6, pp. 91–96, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  44. J. L. Sumich and J. T. Harvey, “Juvenile mortality in gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus),” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 67, pp. 179–182, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  45. B. M. Allen, R. L. Brownell, and J. G. Mead, “Species review of Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris,” Paper SC/63/SM17, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2011, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  46. P. J. Clapham, “Age at attainment of sexual maturity of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 1470–1472, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  47. R. G. Chittleborough, “The breeding cycle of the female humpback whale, Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre),” Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  48. P. J. Clapham, S. E. Wetmore, T. D. Smith, and J. G. Mead, “Length at birth and at independence in humpback whales,” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. M. Straley, Seasonal characteristics of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in southeastern Alaska, M.S. thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 1994.
  50. D. W. Rice, “Progress report on biological studies of the larger cetaceans in the waters off California,” Norsk Hvalfangst-Tidende, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 181–187, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  51. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #2005003, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  52. C. M. Gabriele, J. M. Straley, S. A. Mizroch et al., “Estimating the mortality rate of humpback whale calves in the central North Pacific Ocean,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 589–600, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. U.S. Coast Guard and United States Coast Guard Maritime Information eXchange, “Port State Information eXchange,” http://cgmix.uscg.mil/PSIX/PSIXSearch.aspx, 2011.
  54. R. Campbell-Malone, S. G. Barco, P. Y. Daoust et al., “Gross and histologic evidence of sharp and blunt trauma in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) killed by vessels,” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 37–55, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Barco and K. Touhey, “Handbook for recognizing, evaluating, and documenting human interaction in stranded cetaceans and pinnipeds,” Report from the Virginia Aquarium Stranding Response Program and Cape Cod Stranding Network, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  56. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #1978050, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  57. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #2008145, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  58. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #2008031, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  59. E. J. lijper, Whales and Dolphins, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1978.
  60. P. A. Allison, C. R. Smith, H. Kukert, J. W. Deming, and B. A. Bennett, “Deep-water taphonomy of vertebrate carcasses: a whale skeleton in the bathyal Santa Catalina Basin,” Paleobiology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 78–89, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #2010089, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  62. A. N. Hendrix, J. Straley, C. Gabriele, and S. Gende, “Bayesian estimation of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) population abundance and movement patterns in Southeast Alaska,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. In press.
  63. International Whaling Commission and Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area, “Report of the joint IWC-ACCOBAMS workshop on reducing risk of collisions between vessels and cetaceans,” Tech. Rep., International Whaling Commission and Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, France, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  64. R. Williams and P. O'Hara, “Modelling ship strike risk to fin, humpback and killer whales in British Columbia, Canada,” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. L. Dalebout, K. G. Russell, M. J. Little, and P. Ensor, “Observations of live Gray's beaked whales (Mesoplodon grayi) in Mahurangi Harbour, North Island, New Zealand, with a summary of at-sea sightings,” Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, vol. 34, no. 4, Article ID R03012, pp. 347–356, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Fernández, J. F. Edwards, F. Rodriguez et al., “Gas and fat embolic syndrome' involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 446–457, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. J. Shkrum and D. A. Ramsay, Forensic Pathology of Trauma: Common Problems for the Pathologist, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 2007.
  68. W. F. Dolphin, “Ventilation and dive patterns of humpback whales, (Megaptera novaeangliae), on their Alaskan feeding grounds,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  69. S. E. Parks, J. D. Warren, K. Stamieszkin, C. A. Mayo, and D. Wiley, “Dangerous dining: surface foraging of North Atlantic right whales increases risk of vessel collisions,” Biology Letters, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 57–60, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  70. “Tests before entering or getting underway,” Code of Federal Regulations, Title 33, Part 164.25.
  71. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #1999095, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  72. NOAA Alaska Region Stranding Record #2006140, (unpublished, available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK, 99802).
  73. R. Williams, S. Gero, L. Bejder et al., “Underestimating the damage: interpreting cetacean carcass recoveries in the context of the Deepwater Horizon/BP incident,” Conservation Letters, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 228–233, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. J. E. Heyning and M. E. Dahlheim, “Strandings and incidental takes of gray whales,” Paper SC/A90/G2, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee on the Assessment of Gray Whales, Cambridge, UK, 1990, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. D. Kraus, M. W. Brown, H. Caswell et al., “North Atlantic right whales in crisis,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5734, pp. 561–562, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. J. E. Moore and A. J. Read, “A Bayesian uncertainty analysis of cetacean demography and bycatch mortality using age-at-death data,” Ecological Applications, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1914–1931, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. H. Peltier, W. Dabin, P. Daniel et al., “The significance of stranding data as indicators of cetacean populations at sea: modelling the drift of cetacean carcasses,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 18, pp. 278–290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. J. Empire, State and Local Briefly, 2000.
  79. R. de Stephanis and E. Urquiola, “Collisions between ships and cetaceans in Spain,” Paper SC/58/BC5, International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, Cambridge, UK, 2006, IWC Secretariat, http://www.iwcoffice.org/publications/doclist.htm. View at Google Scholar
  80. Belgian Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Security and Environment, “Whales: avoiding collisions prevents damage to ships, and injuries to passengers, crew and whales,” http://iwcoffice.org/_documents/sci_com/shipstrikes/English%20whale%20strike%20folder.pdf, 2011.
  81. E. M. Chenoweth, C. M. Gabriele, and D. F. Hill, “Tidal influences on humpback whale habitat selection near headlands,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 423, pp. 279–289, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus