Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Marine Biology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1624014, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1624014
Research Article

Molecular Phylogeny and Morphological Distinctions of Two Popular Bivalves, Ctenoides scaber and Ctenoides mitis

1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado Boulder, 334 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
2Museum of Natural History, University of Colorado Boulder, 265 UCB, Boulder, CO 80302, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Lindsey F. Dougherty

Received 19 August 2017; Accepted 2 November 2017; Published 6 December 2017

Academic Editor: Robert A. Patzner

Copyright © 2017 Lindsey F. Dougherty and Jingchun Li. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Wabnitz, M. Taylor, E. Green, and T. Razak, “From Ocean To Aquarium: The Global Trade In,” in Marine Ornamental Species Advanced Aquarist | Aquarist Magazine and Blog. UNEP, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. A. Ross, “A Quantitative Study of the Stony Coral Fishery in Cebu, Philippines,” Marine Ecology: An Evolutionary Perspective, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 75–91, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. N. Tissot and L. E. Hallacher, “Effects of Aquarium Collectors on Coral Reef Fishes in Kona, Hawaii,” Conservation Biology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1759–1768, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. Olivotto, M. Planas, N. Simões, G. J. Holt, M. A. Avella, and R. Calado, “Advances in Breeding and Rearing Marine Ornamentals,” Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 135–166, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Rhyne, R. Rotjan, A. Bruckner, and M. Tlusty, “Crawling to collapse: Ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 12, Article ID e8413, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. L. Rhyne, M. F. Tlusty, J. T. Szczebak, and R. J. Holmberg, “Expanding our understanding of the trade in marine aquarium animals,” PeerJ, vol. 2017, no. 1, Article ID e2949, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Knowlton, “Sibling Species in the Sea,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 189–216, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Dubois, “The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions,” Comptes Rendus Biologies, vol. 326, pp. 9–21, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. P. Humann and N. DeLoach, Reef Creature Identification; Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas, New World Publications, Jacksonville, FL, USA, 3rd edition, 2013.
  10. P. M. Mikkelsen and R. Bieler, “Systematic revision of the western Atlantic file clams, Lima and Ctenoides (Bivalvia:Limoida:Limidae),” Invertebrate Systematics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 667–710, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. H. J. Gilmour, “The defensive adaptations of Lima hians (Mollusca, Bivalvia),” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 209–221, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Okutani, “A new discovery of streak-like flashing luminescence in Ctenoides ales (Finley, 1927) (Bivalvia: Limidae),” Venus Japanese J Malacol, vol. 53, pp. 57–59, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Okubo, T. Kurokawa, T. Suzuki et al., “On the mechanism of streak-like flash on the mantle of Ctenoides ales (Bivalvia : Limidae),” The Japanese Journal of Malacology Venus, vol. 56, pp. 259–269, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  14. D. A. Donovan, J. P. Elias, and J. Baldwin, “Swimming behavior and morphometry of the file shell Limaria fragilis,” Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. F. Dougherty, S. Johnsen, R. L. Caldwell, and N. J. Marshall, “A dynamic broadband reflector built from microscopic silica spheres in the 'disco' clam Ctenoides ales,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 11, no. 98, Article ID 20140407, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. F. Dougherty, A. K. Niebergall, and K. E. Meyer, “Examining Flashing as a Potential Prey Lure in the 'Disco' Clam, Ctenoides ales,” American Malacological Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 160–168, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. H. J. Gilmour, “The structure, ciliation, and function of the lips of some bivalve molluscs,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 335–343, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Morton, “A comparison of lip structure and function correlated with other aspects of the functional morphology of lima lima, limaria (Platilimaria) fragilis, and limaria (Platilimaria) hongkongensis sp.nov. (Bivalvia: Limacea),” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 728–742, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. R. L. Simone, P. M. Mikkelsen, and R. Bieler, “Comparative anatomy of selected marine bivalves from the florida keys, with notes on brazilian congeners (Mollusca: Bivalvia),” Malacologia , vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 1–127, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. M. Hall-Spencer and P. G. Moore, “Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea): a neglected reef-forming keystone species,” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 267–277, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Trigg, D. Harries, A. Lyndon, and C. G. Moore, “Community composition and diversity of two Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea) beds on the west coast of Scotland,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1403–1412, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. F. Dougherty, “Distribution, habitat, and ecology of the “disco” clam, Ctenoides ales,” in Oysters and Clams: Cultivation, Habitat Threats and Ecological Impact, J. L. Romalde, Ed., pp. 1–14, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  23. C. J. Lodeiros and J. H. Himmelman, “Reproductive cycle of the bivalve Lima scabra (Pterioida: Limidae) and its association with environmental conditions,” Revista de Biología Tropical, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 411–418, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. K. Dukeman, N. J. Blake, and W. S. Arnold, “The reproductive cycle of the flame scallop, Ctenoides scaber (Born 1778), from the lower Florida keys and its relationship with environmental conditions,” Journal of Shellfish Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 341–351, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. J. Stephens, “Mechanical and Chemical Sensitivity at the Mantle Edge of the File Clam Lima scabra (Born),” Marine Behaviour and Physiology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 79–90, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Bell and G. J. Mpitsos, “Morphology of the eye of the flame fringe clam, Lima scabra,” Biological Bulletin, pp. 414-415, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. Mpitsos, “Physiology of vision in the molusk Lima scabra,” J Neurophysiol, pp. 36–371, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. C. Cornwall and A. L. F. Gorman, “Ionic and spectral mechanisms of the off response to light in hyperpolarizing photoreceptors of the clam, Lima scabra,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 311–328, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. Morton, “The pallial eyes of Ctenoides floridanus (Bivalvia: Limoidea),” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 449–455, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. F. Dougherty, R. R. Dubielzig, C. S. Schobert, L. B. Teixiera, J. Li et al., “Do you see what I see? Optical morphology and visual capability of ‘disco’ clams (Ctenoides ales),” Biology Open, vol. 6, pp. 648–653, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  31. B. Morton, “The evolution of eyes in the Bivalvia: new insights,” American Malacological Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 35–45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. J. Page and K. Linse, “More evidence of speciation and dispersal across the Antarctic Polar front through molecular systematics of Southern Ocean Limatula (Bivalvia: Limidae),” Polar Biology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 818–826, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. A. Allen, “The Recent species of the genera Limatula and Limea (Bivalvia, Limacea) present in the Atlantic, with particular reference to those in deep water,” Journal of Natural History, vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 2591–2653, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Järnegren, C. Schander, J.-A. Sneli, V. Rønningen, and C. M. Young, “Four genes, morphology and ecology: Distinguishing a new species of Acesta (Mollusca; Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Mexico,” Marine Biology, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 43–55, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. G. Harasewych and I. Tëmkin, “The miocene genus Mantellina (Bivalvia: Limidae) discovered living on the deep reefs off Curaçao, with the description of a new species,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 442–454, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Oliveira and R. S. Absalão, “The genera Limatula and Limea (Mollusca, Pelecypoda, Limidae) from deep waters off Brazil,” Zootaxa, no. 1940, pp. 48–58, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J.-M. Gagnon, E. Kenchington, A. Port, L. J. Anstey, and F. J. Murillo, “Morphological and genetic variation in North Atlantic giant file clams, Acestaspp. (Bivalvia: Limidae), with description of a new cryptic species in the northwest Atlantic,” Zootaxa, vol. 4007, no. 2, pp. 151–180, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. C. Edgar, “MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1792–1797, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Lanfear, P. B. Frandsen, A. M. Wright, T. Senfeld, and B. Calcott, “PartitionFinder 2: new methods for selecting partitioned models of evolution formolecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 772-773, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. A. Stamatakis, P. Hoover, and J. Rougemont, “A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML web servers,” Systematic Biology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 758–771, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Stamatakis, “RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies,” Bioinformatics, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1312-1313, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. P. Huelsenbeck and F. Ronquist, “MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees,” Bioinformatics, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 754-755, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Rambaut, FigTree version 1.3.1, Computer program, 2009, http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/.
  44. C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nature Methods, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 671–675, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. A. Audino and J. E. A. R. Marian, “On the evolutionary significance of the mantle margin in pteriomorphian bivalves,” American Malacological Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 148–159, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Lin and L. Pompa, “Carotenoids of the rea clam Lima scabra,” Boletín del Inst Ocean la Univ Oriente, vol. 16, pp. 83–86, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  47. M. Zuschin and R. J. Stanton Jr., “Experimental measurement of shell strength and its taphonomic interpretation,” Palaios, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 161–170, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Z. M. Rosin, J. Kobak, A. Lesicki, and P. Tryjanowski, “Differential shell strength of Cepaea nemoralis colour morphs - Implications for their anti-predator defence,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 843–851, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. M. Mikkelsen, “Speciation in modern marine bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Insights from the published record,” American Malacological Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 1-2, pp. 217–245, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. E. N. Veron, Corals in space and time: the biogeography and evolution of the Scleractinia, Comstock/Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA, 1995.