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Journal of Nucleic Acids
Volume 2017, Article ID 6513720, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6513720
Research Article

Putative HIV and SIV G-Quadruplex Sequences in Coding and Noncoding Regions Can Form G-Quadruplexes

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, P. J. Safarik University, 04001 Kosice, Slovakia

Correspondence should be addressed to Viktor Víglaský; ks.sjpu@yksalgiv.rotkiv

Received 30 July 2017; Revised 26 September 2017; Accepted 18 October 2017; Published 31 December 2017

Academic Editor: Shozeb Haider

Copyright © 2017 Petra Krafčíková et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The HIV virus is one of the most studied viruses in the world. This is especially true in terms of gene sequencing, and to date more than 9 thousand genomic sequences of HIV isolates have been sequenced and analyzed. In this study, a series of DNA sequences, which have the potential to form G-quadruplex structures, is analyzed. Several such sequences were found in various coding and noncoding virus domains, including the U3 LTR, tat, rev, env, and vpx regions. Interestingly, a homological sequence to the already well-known HIV integrase aptamer was identified in the minus-strand. The sequences derived from original isolates were analyzed using standard spectral and electrophoretic methods. In addition, a recently developed methodology is applied which uses induced circular dichroism spectral profiles of G-quadruplex-ligand (Thiazole Orange) complexes to determine if G-rich sequences can adopt G-quadruplex structure. Targeting the G-quadruplexes or peptide domains corresponding to the G-rich coding sequence in HIV offers researchers attractive therapeutic targets which would be of particular use in the development of novel antiviral therapies. The analysis of G-rich regions can provide researchers with a path to find specific targets which could be of interest for specific types of virus.