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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2010, Article ID 176750, 9 pages
Research Article

Large-Scale Protein Arrays Generated with Interferometric Lithography for Spatial Control of Cell-Material Interactions

Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Center for Biomedical Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA

Received 23 December 2009; Revised 9 May 2010; Accepted 15 May 2010

Academic Editor: Do Kim

Copyright © 2010 Elizabeth L. Hedberg-Dirk and Ulises A. Martinez. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Understanding cellular interactions with material surfaces at the micro- and nanometer scale is essential for the development of the next generation of biomaterials. Several techniques have been used to create micro- and nanopatterned surfaces as a means of studying cellular interactions with a surface. Herein, we report the novel use of interference lithography to create a large (4 cm2) array of 33 nm deep channels in a gold surface, to expose an antireflective coating on a silicon wafer at the bottom of the gold channels. The fabricated pores had a diameter of 140–350 nm separated by an average pitch of 304–750 nm, depending on the fabrication conditions. The gold surface was treated with 2-(2-(2-(11-mercaptoundecyloxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol to create protein-resistant areas. Fibronectin was selectively adsorbed onto the exposed antireflective coating creating nanometer-scale cell adhesive domains. A murine osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) was seeded onto the surfaces and was shown to attach to the fibronectin domains and spread across the material surface.