Synthesis of Green Copper Nanoparticles Using Medicinal Plant Hagenia abyssinica (Brace) JF. Gmel. Leaf Extract: Antimicrobial PropertiesRead the full article
Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
Journal of Nanomaterials maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The Synthesis of Glutamine-Functionalized Block Polymer and Its Application in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly malignant tumor. At present, there are still no targeted drugs for TNBC. Clinical chemotherapeutic drugs, such as doxorubicin (DOX), have the characteristic of nontargeted distribution in treatment of TNBC, causing severe side effects. Therefore, new target treatment strategies for TNBC are of urgent need. It was speculated that glutamine could be a potential target because it is in high demand by TNBC. In this study, we found that the transporter for glutamine, ASCT2 (solute carrier family 1 member 5 (SLC1A5)), is highly expressed in TNBC by analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and experiments in vitro. Based on this, glutamine was grafted onto a polymeric drug carrier in order to develop a tumor-targeting drug delivery system for treatment of TNBC. Firstly, pH-responsive glutamine-PEG5000-b-PAE10000 (Gln-PEG-b-PAE) copolymers were synthesized using Fmoc-PEG5000-b-PAE10000 (Fmoc-PEG-b-PAE) copolymers. Then, Gln-PEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles were prepared by loading DOX to Gln-PEG-b-PAE copolymer using a solvent casting technology. In vitro, Gln-PEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles exhibited pH-dependent micellization-decellularization behavior; namely, they can rapidly release DOX in acidic environment of pH 6.0 but release very slowly in physiological condition. Moreover, glutamine competition experiment showed that Gln-PEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles had the ability to target MDA-MB-231 cells. Compared to free DOX, Gln-PEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles had significantly greater cytotoxic effect and antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, compared to free DOX and mPEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles, Gln-PEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles significantly inhibited tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, Gln-PEG-b-PAE@DOX micelles, as a tumor-targeting drug delivery system, may provide a new method for the treatment of TNBC.
Inulin-Grafted Stearate (In-g-St) as the Effective Self-Assembling Polymeric Micelle: Synthesis and Evaluation for the Delivery of Betamethasone
Background. Betamethasone as a corticosteroid drug is commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Unfortunately, betamethasone is a low water-soluble drug and its efficacy is low. So an attractive strategy is the targeted delivery of betamethasone to the damaged joint using polymeric micelle-based carriers. Methods. Inulin-grafted stearate (In-g-St) was synthesized via the reaction of stearoyl chloride and inulin, then characterized by FT-IR and H-NMR. In-g-St forms micelles in the presence of betamethasone. The prepared polymeric micelles were characterized for size, zeta potential, drug loading, particles’ morphology, critical micelle concentration (CMC), and encapsulation efficiency. So sustained release polymeric micelles of betamethasone were developed by employing In-g-St. Results. The measurement of particle size showed a mean diameter of 60 and 130 nm for 10% and 20% drug-loaded micelles, respectively, and SEM showed that the particle’s morphologies are spherical. Zeta potential measurement for the drug-containing micelles showed a value of -11.8 mV. Drug loading efficiency and the encapsulation efficiency were 6.36% and 63.6%, as well as 18.97% and 94.88% for 10% and 20%, respectively. 20% drug-loaded polymer showed a small burst release of betamethasone at the first 3 h which was followed by sustained release in the next 24 h. Furthermore, the formula with 10% exhibited good sustained release properties except for the minor initial burst release. Conclusion. Data from the zeta potential, CMC, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release studies indicated that In-g-St polymeric micelles can be suitable candidates for the efficient delivery of hydrophobic drugs like betamethasone.
Simultaneous Improvement in the Tensile and Impact Strength of Polypropylene Reinforced by Graphene
The nanocomposites of polypropylene (PP)/graphene were prepared by melt blending. The effects of the dosage of graphene on the flow and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The morphologies of fracture surfaces were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The graphene simultaneous enhanced tensile and impact properties of nanocomposites. A 3.22% increase in tensile strength, 39.8% increase in elongation at break, and 26.7% increase in impact strength are achieved by addition of only 1 wt.% of graphene loading. The morphological behavior indicates the fracture surface of PP/graphene is more rough than that of pure PP.
A Study of the Mechanical Properties of Au Nanomeshes
We study the mechanical behavior of Au nanomeshes (AuNMs) based on finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and deformation tests. The simulated results of mechanical flexibility indicate that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can release the stress of AuNMs under mechanical stretching and bending, the displacement of stretched AuNMs yields a 2% promotion, and the displacement of bent AuNMs yields a 3.5% promotion under buffering of PET substrate at 5 GPa yield strength of nanoscale Au. The stress and displacement distribution of the AuNMs/PET is demonstrated and analyzed. The further deformation tests of AuNMs under compressive and tensile loading indicate that the simulation data are in good agreement with experimental results. This paper is conducive to understanding the mechanical behavior and corresponding structural response and structural fracture dynamics of AuNMs.
Preparation of Sol-Enhanced Ni–P–Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coating by Electrodeposition
A Ni–P–(sol)Al2O3 coating was prepared on the surface of Q235 steel by direct-current electrodeposition. This method was combined with sol-gel and electrodeposition technique, instead of the traditional nanopowder dispersion, to prepare highly dispersible oxide nanoparticle-reinforced composites. The effects of temperature, pH value, and current density and Al2O3 sol on the hardness of composite coating were investigated. The coating surface morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. The corrosion resistance of coatings in the presence of intermediate layers was evaluated by electrochemical measurement in 3.5% NaCl solution by open-circuit potential measurement at room temperature. The hardness and wear resistance of the coating were measured by a microindentation instrument and friction wear machine, respectively. The results showed that Al2O3 sol can effectively improve Ni–P alloy coating structure and refine grain. When the bath temperature was 55°C, the pH value was 4.5, the amount of sol was 80 mL/L, the current density was 1 A/dm2, and the hardness of the nanosol coating was 569 HV. Compared with Ni–P, the friction coefficient increases slightly, but the wear rate was only . The corrosion resistance was also better than that of Ni–P coating.
Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth-Doped Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mn Electrodes for the Electrocatalytic Performance
The modified Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mn/Re electrodes were prepared using rare earth (Re) Gd, Eu, Ce, and Er and various molar ratios of tin and manganese by thermal decomposition. To investigate the electrocatalytic performance of electrodes, phenol was applied as a model pollutant. Phenol removal pursued pseudofirst-order kinetics in the experimental range. The experimental outcomes show that the phenol degradation at ~95% and ~97% was found in Mn (1 mol%)/Re and Mn (2 mol%)/Re electrodes after treatment for 140 min. Accelerated lifetime testing showed that the best-accelerated service life could be measured only in Mn (3 mol%)/Re and Mn (4 mol%)/Re compared with other prepared Mn (0%,1%, and 2%)/Re electrodes under the condition of 500 mAcm-2 current density in this study. The modified electrodes were then characterized, including oxygen evolution potential (OEP), crystal structure, and surface composition of the electrode coatings.