Application of Mesoscale Simulation to Explore the pH Response of Eudragit S100 Used as the Novel Colon-Targeted Powder of Pulsatilla Saponin DRead the full article
Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
Chief Editor Stefano Bellucci is Professor of Theoretical Physics at the National Institute for Nuclear Physics in Frascati, Italy. His research interests include nanoscience and nanotechnology, nanocarbon-based composites, and the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.
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The Dynamics of H2O Suspended by Multiple Shaped Cu Nanoadditives in Rotating System
Heat transfer investigation in the nanofluids is significant for real world applications. The investigation of heat transfer over a stretchable magnetized surface has broad applications in various industries. Therefore, heat transfer featuring in the nanofluid synthesized by various shaped Cu and H2O is organized over a shrinking surface. The problem is organized properly via similarity equations by inducing the influences of magnetic field. Then, OVIM is adopted and performed the solutions for the particular model. The results are furnished for the governing quantities over the feasible region and deeply discussed in the view of their physical significance. It is examined that the nanoliquids angular motion and shear stresses drops by strengthen magnetic field effects. Moreover, nanoliquid containing brick Cu-particles is better heat conductor and could be used broadly for industrial applications as for as heat transport concerned. In end, authentication of the study is provided by comparing the results with previous science literature and an excellent agreement is seems between them.
Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles from Spinach Leaf and Banana Peel Aqueous Extracts and Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential
Spinacia oleracea (spinach) and Musa acuminata (banana) were chosen for the study, and aqueous extracts of spinach leaf extract (SLE) and banana peel extract (BPE) were prepared for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs), and their antibacterial potential against pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (MTTC 1133) and Escherichia coli (MTTC 62) was evaluated. In 10 minutes at 60°C, the color of the mixture (FeCl3+SLE) changed from light green to dark blackish-brown, and the color of the mix (FeCl3+BPE) changed from transparent yellow to dark black, confirming the synthesis of FeNPs from SLE and BPE, respectively. The UV-Vis spectra of spinach- and banana-derived FeNPs revealed two peaks ranging from 240 to 430 nm and multiple peaks at 240, 270, and 395 nm, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy was used to show different functional groups on BPE and SLE, and their role in FeNP synthesis was predicted. TEM micrographs showed that the particles were in nanoscale, ranging in size from 20 to 50 nm for BPE-derived FeNPs and 10 to 70 nm for SLE-derived FeNPs. The FeNP (BPE and SLE) XRD analysis revealed amorphism, with a weak iron characteristic peak, indicating noncrystallinity. The antibacterial potential of BPE- and SLE-FeNPs was investigated, and inhibition zones (mm) against B. subtilis () and E. coli () were observed, as well as SLE-FeNPs against B. subtilis () and E. coli (). There were no significant differences in antibacterial activities between BPE-FeNPs and SLE-FeNPs. Positive controls were tetracycline and gentamicin, both standard antibiotics, at 5 μg/disk. SLE- and BPE-derived green FeNPs were also analysed in vivo of D. melanogaster life history traits, i.e., fecundity, hatchability, viability, and duration of development for toxicity evaluation. SLE- and BPE-derived green FeNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/L were fed flies compared to normal diet-fed flies (control sample), and no significant differences were observed between them. The findings suggest that FeNPs have a high antibacterial potential and could be used as antibacterial agents against pathogenic bacteria while being nontoxic in nature.
Application of Nanomaterials to Ensure Quality and Nutritional Safety of Food
Nanomaterials (NMs) are emerging novel tools for preserving quality, enhancing shelf life, and ensuring food safety. Owing to the distinctive physicochemical characters, engineered NMs under varying sizes and dimensions have great potentials for application in the manufacturing, packaging, processing, and safety of quality agrifood. The promise of various kinds of novel NMs that are useful for food industries has opened a possibility of a new revolution in agroprocessing industries in both the emerging and advanced nations. The rapid advancement of nanoscience has provided a great impact on material science that has allowed researchers to understand every aspect of molecular complexity and its functions in life sciences. The reduced size of NMs that increase the surface area is useful in the specific target of different organs, and biodegradable nanospheres are helpful in the transport of bioactive molecules across the cellular barriers. However, nanotechnology creates a great revolution in several sections including agriculture and food industry and also reduces environmental pollution, while the toxicity of some NMs in the food industry poses a great concern to researchers for their greater application. However, most of the developed countries have regulatory control acts but developing countries do not have them yet. Therefore, for the safe use of NMs and also to minimize the health and environmental risks in both the developed and developing countries, it is indispensable to recognize the toxicity-constructed, toxicodynamic, and toxicokinetic features of NMs, which should carefully be emphasized at the home and industrial levels. The current study highlights the updates of the NMs to safeguard the quality and nutritional safety of foods at home and also at the industrial level.
Silica/OCP Affects the Viability of Osteoblasts through ROS-Induced Autophagy
Objective. To explore the effects of silicone gel nanoparticles modified with octacalcium phosphate on the surface (silica/OCP) polymer drugs on the proliferation of osteoblasts and autophagy. Method. Silica/OCP was prepared in vitro, and the quality of the sample preparation was tested through characterization experiments. The osteoblast cell line (hFOB1.19) was treated with silica/OCP, autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine (3-MA)), and silica/OCP+3-MA, respectively. The proliferation of hFOB1.19 cells was detected through the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) kit. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis. The change in protein beclin1 and P62 expression in hFOB1.19 cells was observed in Western blot. An ROS detection kit was used to detect the content of reactive oxygen species in hFOB1.19 cells. Results. Silica/OCP was a sphere with a particle size of 50 nm to 130 nm and had an OCP phase in electron projection microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results indicated that OCP successfully modified silica and the material was successfully prepared. An MTT kit and flow cytometry test showed that the cell viability of the cells treated with silica/OCP increased significantly (), and the intracellular apoptosis phenomenon was significantly decreased () compared to the control group. Moreover, the inhibition of cell viability and promotion of apoptosis caused by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA can be rescued. Western blotting demonstrated that the protein level of beclin1 in osteoblasts reached the highest after six hours of treatment with silica/OCP, and the protein level of p62, the substrate protein of autophagy, reached the lowest. At the same time, treatment of cells with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and silica/OCP+3-MA found that the protein levels of beclin1 and p62 in the silica/OCP+3-MA group were adjusted back compared to the 3-MA group. After adding the autophagy inhibitor, the reactive oxygen content in the cell was significantly increased () in the silica/OCP group. In the presence of intracellular reactive oxygen inhibitors catalase and silica/OCP, the cell viability of osteoblasts was significantly lower than that of the silica/OCP group but significantly higher than that of the silica/OCP+3-MA group. The apoptosis level of the silica/OCP+catalase group was also significantly lower than that of the silica/OCP+3-MA group () but was significantly higher than that of the silica/OCP group (). Conclusion. Silica/OCP nanoparticles can upregulate the level of autophagy in osteoblasts and promote the proliferation of osteoblasts.
Theoretical Analysis of Cu-H2O, Al2O3-H2O, and TiO2-H2O Nanofluid Flow Past a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Convective Conditions
The nanofluids can be used in the subsequent precise areas like chemical nanofluids, environmental nanofluids, heat transfer nanofluids, pharmaceutical nanofluids, drug delivery nanofluids, and process/extraction nanofluids. In short, the number of engineering and industrial applications of nanofluid technologies, as well as their emphasis on particular industrial applications, has been increased recently. Therefore, this exploration is carried out to analyze the nanofluid flow past a rotating disk with velocity slip and convective conditions. The water-based spherical-shaped nanoparticles of copper, alumina, and titanium have been considered in this analysis. The modeled problem has been solved with the help of homotopic technique. Convergence of the homotopic technique is shown with the help of the figure. The role of the physical factors on radial and tangential velocities, temperature, surface drag force, and heat transfer rate are displayed through figures and tables. The outcomes demonstrate that the surface drag force of the water-based spherical-shaped nanoparticles of Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2 has been reduced with a greater magnetic field. The radial and tangential velocities of the water-based spherical-shaped nanoparticles of Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2, and pure water have been augmented via magnetic parameter. The radial velocity of the water-based spherical-shaped nanoparticle of Cu has been augmented via nanoparticle volume fraction, whereas reduced for the Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. The tangential velocity of the water-based spherical-shaped nanoparticles of Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2 has reduced via nanoparticle volume fraction. Also, the variations in radial and tangential velocities are greater for slip conditions as compared to no-slip conditions.
Controlling the Emission Properties of Quantum Rods via Multiscale 3D Ordered Organization
A specific organization of optically active nanoscale objects can greatly affect the optical response of a system. Here, we report the controlled modification of the fluorescent emission by the assembly of water-soluble quantum rods (QRs). Our study combines optical, electron microcopy, and X-ray scattering characterizations to reveal a correlation between the self-assembly behavior of QRs into ordered 3D-arrays and the optical properties (luminescence) of formed assemblies, where the observed optical response is highly dependent on the QR aspect ratio. Specifically, shorter, 18 nm long QRs (QR18), exhibiting a well-defined smectic packing, demonstrate an enhancement of the emission intensity accompanied by a red shift and a lifetime reduction. In contrast, 40 nm long QRs (QR40), forming a columnar phase, does not show these optical properties.