Folic Acid-Conjugated Silica-Modified TbPO4·H2O Nanorods for Biomedical ApplicationsRead the full article
Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
Chief Editor Stefano Bellucci is Professor of Theoretical Physics at the National Institute for Nuclear Physics in Frascati, Italy. His research interests include nanoscience and nanotechnology, nanocarbon-based composites, and the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.
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Study on Microstructure and Properties of the UV Curing Acrylic Epoxy/SiO2 Nanocomposite Coating
This study is aimed at exploring the effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on the crosslinking and mechanical and thermal properties of UV curing acrylic epoxy coating. The curing polymerization process and thermal and mechanical properties of UV-curable acrylate epoxy system have been evaluated with or without the presence of SiO2 nanoparticles. To fabricate the UV curing acrylic epoxy/SiO2 nanocomposite coating, nano-SiO2 particles (0.5–5 wt.% by weight of resin) were added in the photo-curable system using sonication for 3 h. Various techniques for characterization have been used, such as FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope), FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), TGA (thermogravimetry analysis), gel fraction, and swelling degree analyses. FESEM data indicated that at the content of 2.5 wt.%, nanosilica was homogeneously dispersed in the coating procedure. However, once added 5 wt.%, large aggregation portions were found inside the coating matrices. Surprisingly, nano-SiO2 could play dual roles, as both UV absorbers and nanoreinforcers, in this nanocomposite coating. Besides, data from FTIR, gel fraction, and swelling degree analyses confirmed the role of SiO2 nanoparticles as UV absorbers that reduced the conversion performance of acrylate double bonds, thus increased slightly the swelling degree of coating. In addition, incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles (as nanofillers, at content of 2.5 wt.%) in the polymer matrix enhanced significantly the abrasion resistance and thermal stability of the coating, by 60% (from 98.3 to 158.4 lite/mil) and 9°C (from 348°C to 357°C), respectively.
Construction of a Novel Doxorubicin Nanomedicine Using Bindarit as a Carrier: A Multiscale Computer Simulation-Assisted Design-Based Study
Nanomedicines typically use polymeric materials or liposomes as carriers. This provides targeting advantages but may lead to a series of defects, such as low drug loading, high risk in terms of safety, and high production costs. Herein, we report a computer simulation-assisted designing method for the construction of a novel doxorubicin (DOX) nanomedicine without any polymer carriers. We used a small molecular drug, bindarit (BIN), as a carrier of DOX to provide synergistic antitumor effects. First, the intermolecular forces between DOX and BIN were calculated for evaluating the interaction and potential conformation of the DOX/BIN complex. Then, the potential assembly ability of the DOX/BIN complex was predicated here by using dissipative particle dynamic stimulation. These computational simulation results suggested that BIN could form an amphiphilic complex with DOX through π–π stacking, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction and then self-assemble to nanoaggregates at the mesoscopic scale. Under the computational guidance, doxorubicin/bindarit nanoparticles (DOX/BIN NPs) in a spherical morphology were successfully prepared, and these NPs possess the original cytotoxic activity of DOX. Thus, this multiscale computer simulation-assisted design strategy can serve as an effective approach to develop nanomedicines using small molecules as a carrier.
Preparation of Electrode Material Based to Bismuth Oxide-Attached Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Lead (II) Ion Determination
Bi2O3 was proven an attractive compound for electrode modification in heavy metal electrochemical analysis. A novel method for synthesizing Bi2O3-attached multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Bi2O3@CNTs) in solution is successfully developed in this study. Characteristics of the obtained Bi2O3@CNTs were proven by modern techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and anodic stripping voltammetry. Microscopy images and spectra results reveal that Bi2O3 particles are mainly attached at defect points on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) walls. Paste electrodes based on the MWCNTs and synthesized Bi2O3@CNTs were applied for electrochemical measurements. The redox mechanism of Bi2O3 on the electrode surface was also made clear by the cyclic voltammetric tests. The recorded cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrate that the Bi2O3@CNTs electrode was in lower charge transfer resistance than the CNTs one and in the controlled diffusion region. Investigation on the electrochemical behavior of Pb2+ at the Bi2O3@CNTs electrodes found a significant improvement of analytical response, resulting in 3.44 μg/L of the detection limit and 2.842 μA/(μg/L) of the sensitivity with linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry technique at optimized conditions.
Novel Nano-Based Drug Delivery Systems Targeting Hepatic Stellate Cells in the Fibrotic Liver
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) exist in the liver’s perisinusoidal space, are phenotypically activated, and acquire myofibroblast-like phenotype. This phenotypic transformation is accountable for the accumulation and production of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, involving different fibril-forming collagens in the perisinusoidal space, producing altered hepatic function and portal hypertension and increased vascular resistance, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The activated HSCs/myofibroblasts are principal collagen-producing cells in the damaged liver. Therefore, fibrosis treatments are often targeting HSCs. HSCs store most of the total body’s retinol in their cytoplasm, and hence, antifibrotic nanomedicines are often targeted with vitamin A decoration. Vitamin A-decorated nanomedicines with siRNAs for transforming growth factor-beta, collagen, and connective tissue growth factors target to inhibit fibrogenesis and the ECM-associated gene expressions, leading to fibrosis regression. Similarly, a variety of miRNAs play pro- and antifibrotic function. In the fibrotic liver, the profibrotic miRNAs are targeted with their respective antagomir and the antifibrotic miRNAs are targeted with their respective agomirs along with HSC-specific nanodecoration. These miRNA treatments reduce fibrogenesis by downregulation of ECM-related gene expressions. However, liver fibrosis is caused by the upregulation of a different type of profibrotic signaling pathways associated with ECM accumulation in the fibrotic liver. Therefore, specific gene silencing by siRNAs or targeting particularly miRNA may also not effectively reduce fibrosis to a greater extent. However, nanodecoration of a drug is useful to deliver drugs into activated HSCs in the injured liver. Therefore, the aim of this review is to focus on targeted drug delivery towards activated HSCs in the persistently damaged liver.
Mycosynthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanoparticles Using the Cell-Free Filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities
Green nanotechnology is an expanding branch of knowledge in relation to producing efficient antifungal compounds with potential applications as nanomedicines. The aim of the current investigation was to mycosynthesize functional vanadium oxide nanoparticles (V2O5NPs) by Fusarium oxysporum cell-free filtrate using ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) as the substrate. Various spectrometric methods and electron microscopy were used to confirm the production of mycosynthesized V2O5NPs. FESEM and TEM images showed that V2O5NPs were in the size ranging from 10 to 20 nm in a spherical shape. The XRD pattern revealed the presence of crystalline, dominantly spherical V2O5NPs in the sample with a size ranging from 10 to 20 nm. The XRD peaks 15.2, 20.1, 21.6, 26.1, 30.9, 32.2, 33.1, 34.2, 41.0, 41.8, 45.3, 47.2, 48.6, 51.1, 51.9, 55.4, and 58.8 can be assigned to the plane of vanadium crystals and indicate that the V2O5NPs were face-centered, cubic, and crystalline in nature. The FTIR results showed the presence of some biomolecules in fungal cell-free filtrate that act as a bioreducing and capping agent for V2O5NP mycosynthesis. DLS showed that the size of V2O5NPs was 10-20 nm. Zeta potential showed −35.09 mV for V2O5NPs with a single peak. Study of antifungal activity of V2O5NPs against various pathogenic fungi in concentrations of 5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL showed that V2O5NPs strongly inhibited both mycelium growth (20.3 to 67.3%) and spore germination (64.8 to 89.9%) dose-dependently. V2O5NPs showed strong cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell-line MCF-7 with an value of 55.89 μg/mL. Microscopy images showed morphological changes and reduction of cancer cell populations in V2O5NP-treated MCF-7 cell-line. Taken together, our results demonstrated that bioactive V2O5NPs successfully synthesized by F. oxysporum could be considered a potential candidate in drug development against life-threatening fungal pathogens and as a feasible anticancer agent.
Synthesis and Characterization of the Chitosan Silver Nanoparticle-Reinforced Borassus flabellifer Trichome- and Prosopis juliflora Wood-Based Nanocomposite for Environmental Application
Wood is a wide flexible material appreciated extremely for its cost-effectiveness, great quantity, and biocompatibility. In addition, naturally existing materials possess prominent biomedical applications, and they can withstand efficiently when compared to other materials like glass, steel, and plastics. The present study revealed the prepared chitosan, silver nanoparticles incorporated with Borassus flabellifer trichome, and fabrication of Prosopis juliflora wood-based biomaterial. A characterization study was done by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis, FTIR analysis, and SEM analysis expressing and confirming a significant characteristic and morphological property of the prepared biomaterial.