The Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Dual Drug- (Cisplatin/Epigallocatechin Gallate) Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles for Lung Cancer TreatmentRead the full article
Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
Journal of Nanomaterials maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Towards Sophisticated 3D Interphase Modelling of Advanced Bionanocomposites via Atomic Force Microscopy
Nanomechanical properties and interphase dimensions of PVA bionanocomposites reinforced with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and Cloisite 30B montmorillonite (MMT) were evaluated by means of peak force quantitative nanomechanical mapping (PFQNM). A three-phase theoretical composite model was established based on hard-core–soft-shell structures consisting of hard mono-/polydispersed anisotropic particles and soft interphase and matrices. Halpin-Tsai model and Mori-Tanaka model were employed to predict experimentally determined tensile moduli of PVA bionanocomposites where effective volume fraction of randomly oriented nanoparticles resulted from the inclusion of interphase properties and volume fractions. Overall, it was suggested that the estimation of elastic modulus according to effective volume fraction of nanoparticles revealed better agreement with experimental data as opposed to that based upon their nominal volume fraction. In particular, the use of polydispersed HNTs and Cloisite 30B MMT clays with Fuller particulate gradation was proven to yield the best prediction when compared with experimental data among all proposed theoretical models. This study overcomes the neglected real interphase characteristics in modelling nanocomposite materials with much more accurate estimation of their mechanical properties.
Functionalization of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Can Reduce Their Cytotoxicity to Dental Pulp Stem Cells
Background. The dental pulp is a heterogeneous soft tissue that supplies nutrients and acts as a biosensor to identify pathogenic stimuli. Regeneration of the dental pulp is one of the desirable topics for researchers. Graphene oxide nanosheets (nGOs) help overexpression of the genes related to odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from dental pulps and increases attachment and proliferation of dental pulp stem cells. Despite its benefits, nGO may be considered as a threat to the environment and human health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility potential of graphene oxide (nGO), chitosan functionalized graphene oxide (nGO-CS), and carboxylated graphene (nGO-COOH) when exposed to human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Material and Methods. Some different aspects of biocompatibility of nGO, nGO-CS, and nGO-COOH were synthesized, and several intracellular effects induced by different concentrations of graphene-based nanosheets, including cell viability, intracellular oxidative damages, and various factors such as LDH, GSH, SOD, MDA, and MMP, were studied on hDPSCs. Results. According to results, IC50 was determined as 232.01, 467.81, and ≥1000 μg/mL for nGO, nGO-CS, and nGO-COOH, respectively. These results demonstrated the lower toxicity and higher cytocompatibility of nGO-CS and nGO-COOH compared to nGO. nGO-COOH not only has any adverse effect on the cell membrane and mitochondrial activity but also shows slight antioxidant activity at some concentrations. Conclusion. The findings help design safe and cytocompatible nGO derivatives for biomedical applications in dental fields.
Superhydrophobic Hair-Like Nanowire Membrane for the Highly Efficient Separation of Oil/Water Mixtures
Water pollution caused by oil leakage and oily wastewater has become a serious environmental problem. Therefore, it is important to develop an efficient material to remove oil from water. Given the cost and efficiency, the membrane with superhydrophobicity is the most used material for the separation of oil/water mixtures. However, many works have been done through modification with a fluorinated reagent, causing high cost and damage to the environment. In this work, a simple and fast two-step method is employed to achieve a superhydrophobic hair-like nanowire membrane. Through the alkali-assisted oxidation process and modification with nonfluorinated low surface energy chemical, the so-obtained membrane (denoted as SHM), with the water contact angle of about 164°, exhibits excellent separation efficiency for binary mixtures of water and oils (toluene, hexane, gasoline, and so on). Meantime, this membrane also exhibits excellent durability and reusability in the long-term separation process, indicating its great potential for practical application in the future.
Fluorescent Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride Nanoparticles Inhibit the Malignant Behavior of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone via miR-125b/PTH1R Axis
Objective. To explore the therapeutic effects and mechanism of fluorescent mitoxantrone hydrochloride nanoparticles on giant cell tumor of bone. Methods. The adsorption capacity of nanoparticles to hydroxyapatite (HA), cell adsorption capacity, encapsulation rate, particle size, and potential of the nanoparticles were determined by HPLC and Zetasizer Nano ZS nanomicelle potentiometer. MTT assay was used to determine the toxicity of nanoparticles to cells. The fluorescent intensity of the nanoparticles and their location in the cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were then used to measure the expression levels of miRNA, mRNA, and proteins in cells. Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining tests were used to study the cell invasion and apoptotic rate, respectively. The dual-luciferase reporter gene experiment was then carried out to verify the binding relationship between miR-125b and its predicted target. Results. ALN-FOL-MTO-NLC nanoparticles showed a stronger adsorption capacity for HA and stronger toxicity to GCTB28 cells. Compared to normal tissues, the expression level of miR-125b in giant bone tumor tissue and cells was significantly downregulated, and the expression level of miR-125b was upregulated to some extent after treatment. Overexpression of miR-125b or treatment of ALN-FOL-MTO-NLC nanoparticles can inhibit the malignant behavior of GCTB28 cells, whereas the inhibition of the expression of miR-125b can promote the malignant behavior of GCTB28 cells. The result showed that parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTH1R) was a downstream target gene for miR-125b. Rescue experiment showed that the treatment of GCTB28 with ALN-FOL-MTO-NLC nanoparticles while inhibiting miR-125b expression can reduce the inhibitory effect of miR-125b on the malignant behavior of GCTB28 cells, whereas upregulating the expression levels of miR-125b and PTH1R in GCTB28 cells had no significant effect on the malignant behavior of GCTB28 cells. Conclusion. ALN-FOL-MTO-NLC nanoparticles have a certain inhibitory effect on the malignant behavior of giant cell tumor of bone through the miR-125b/PTH1R molecular axis.
Chemosensing Test Paper Based on Aggregated Nanoparticles of a Barbituric Acid Derivative
The development of sensitive, cheap, and portable methods for detecting nitroaromatics explosives has a profound significance and value for public health and environmental protection. For this purpose, a new D-π-A barbituric acid derivative CB-CYH with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior was synthesized, which can interact with picric acid through photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the enhanced emission of the compounds is related to the formation of nano-aggregates. It is well known that an important source of mechanochromic fluorescence (MCF) characteristic materials is the compound with AIE characteristics. The chemosensing test paper prepared by aggregated nanoparticles based on AIE properties is often subjected to external friction or squeeze during transportation or storage, resulting in changes of their optical properties, and destruction of test paper followed. Therefore, the development of compounds with AIE properties and stable optical properties in the presence of external stimuli is particularly important for chemosensing test paper. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) shows that the presence of hydrophobic cycloalkyl group in CB-CYH, which caused the molecules to be closely interspersed with each other; hence, it is difficult to change the microstructure and stacking mode of molecules by external stimulation simultaneously; the optical properties are not changed by external stimuli. Therefore, the test paper based on the AIE effect of CB-CYH was developed as chemosensing test paper for the detection of nitroaromatics.
Novel Nano-Fe2O3-Co3O4 Modified Dolomite and Its Use as Highly Efficient Catalyst in the Ozonation of Ammonium Solution
Catalytic ozonation is a new method used for removal of NH4OH solution. Therefore, high catalytic performance (activity and selectivity) should be achieved. In this work, we report the synthesis and catalytic performance of Fe2O3-Co3O4 modified dolomite in the catalytic ozonation of NH4OH solution. Dolomite was successfully activated and modified with Fe2O3 and Co3O4. Firstly, dolomite was activated by heating at 800°C for 3 h and followed by KOH treatment. Activated dolomite was modified with Fe2O3 by the atomic implantation method using FeCl3 as Fe source. Fe2O3 modified dolomite was further modified with Co3O4 by precipitation method. The obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption–desorption (BET), and temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). From SEM image, it was revealed that nano-Fe2O3 and Co3O4 particles with the size of 80–120 nm. Catalytic performance of activated dolomite, Fe2O3 modified dolomite, and Fe2O3-Co3O4 modified dolomite in catalytic ozonation of NH4+ solution was investigated and evaluated. Among 3 tested catalysts, Fe2O3-Co3O4 modified dolomite has the highest NH4+ conversion (96%) and N2 selectivity (77.82%). Selectivity toward N2 over the catalyst was explained on the basis of bond strength M-O in oxides through the standard enthalpy of oxide. Catalyst with lower value has higher N2 selectivity and the order is the following: Co3O4 ( of 60 kcal (mole O)) > Fe2O3 ( of 70 kcal (mole O)) > MgO ( of 170 kcal (mole O)). Moreover, high reduction ability of Fe2O3-Co3O4 modified dolomite could improve the N2 selectivity by the reduction of NO3- to N2 gas.