Effect of Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Coated with Polar Material and the Antibacterial Activity on Marine Pathogenic BacteriaRead the full article
Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
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A Review Study on Mechanical Properties of Obtained Products by FDM Method and Metal/Polymer Composite Filament Production
In addition to traditional manufacturing methods, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has become a widespread production technique used in the industry. The Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) method is one of the most known and widely used additive manufacturing techniques. Due to the fact that polymer-based materials used as depositing materials by the FDM method in printing of parts have insufficient mechanical properties, the technique generally has limited application areas such as model making and prototyping. With the development of polymer-based materials with improved mechanical properties, this technique can be preferred in wider application areas. In this context, analysis of the mechanical properties of the products has an important role in the production method with FDM. This study investigated the mechanical properties of the products obtained by metal/polymer composite filament production and FDM method in detail. It was reviewed current literature on the production of metal/polymer composite filaments with better mechanical properties than filaments compatible with three-dimensional (3D) printers. As a result, it was found that by adding reinforcements of composites in various proportions, products with high mechanical properties can be obtained. Thus, it was predicted that the composite products obtained in this way can be used in wider application areas.
Simvastatin-Loaded Nanomicelles Enhance the Osteogenic Effect of Simvastatin
Objectives. The present study intended to further verify that simvastatin-loaded nanomicelles (SVNs) enhanced the role of simvastatin (SV) in promoting osteoblast differentiation in vitro and to evaluate the effect of SVNs on bone defect repair in vivo. Methods. SVNs were synthesized by dialysis. MG63 cells were subjected to intervention with 0.25 μmol/l of SVNs and SV. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay kit and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation activity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis. The osteoblastic differentiation of MG 63 cells was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, ALP staining, and the expression levels of the osterix (Osx) and osteocalcin (OC) proteins. In addition, 0.5 mg of SVNs or SV was applied to the skull defect area of rabbits. Micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and Masson’s trichrome staining were used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of new bone in three dimensions and two dimensions. Results. The SVNs had a mean diameter of 38.97 nm. The encapsulation and drug-loading efficiencies were and , respectively. In vitro, SVNs and SV can inhibit the proliferation activity and promote osteogenic differentiation of MG63 cells by arresting MG63 cells at the G0/G1 phase without increasing the apoptosis rate. In vivo quantitative results showed that the bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume (BV)/total volume (TV) ratio, and trabecular number (Tb.N) in the gelatin sponge with SVNs (SVNs-GS) group and gelatin sponge with SV (SV-GS) group were 362.1%, 292.0%; 181.3%, 158.0%; and 215.2%, 181.8% of those in the blank control (BC) group, respectively. Histological results identified the new bone tissue in each group as irregular fibrous bone, and the arrangement of trabecular bone was disordered. There were significantly more osteoblasts and new capillaries around the trabecular bone in the SVNs-GS group and SV-GS group than in both the BC and drug-free nanomicelle (DFNs) groups. Both in vitro and in vivo, SVNs exhibited greater osteogenic efficacy than SV. Conclusion. SVNs significantly improved the osteogenic efficacy of SV.
Antibacterial Properties of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Application in Oral Biology
As bacterial resistance is becoming increasingly serious, the development of antibacterial nanomaterials is an effective method of solving this problem. Gold nanoparticles have good stability and excellent biocompatibility and are easily modified, and their antibacterial properties can be enhanced by changing their structure and size or adding ingredients. Gold nanoparticles are also excellent drug carriers that can improve the antibacterial effects of loaded antibacterial drugs. After being modified and combined with other antibacterial drugs, gold nanoparticles can also play a better antibacterial role for effective antibacterial strategies against some resistant bacteria. Gold nanoparticles have photothermal effects, and modified gold nanoparticles can be a good medium for photothermal treatments to kill bacteria. By adding functionally modified gold nanoparticles, many materials can obtain much needed antibacterial properties. Gold nanoparticles can also be combined with cations, low-temperature plasma, various surface ligands, and other potential antibacterial agents. In short, the antibacterial characteristics of functionalized gold nanoparticles demonstrate that they have considerable practical application value and provide more ideas to solve antibacterial problems. At the same time, the application of gold nanoparticles in oral biology is also increasing.
Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect of Rutin Prenanoemulsion in Lung and Colon Cancer Cell Lines
In this work, prenanoemulsion of rutin was prepared using PEG and Tween as emulsifiers via homogenization and evaporation techniques. The particle size of rutin was investigated with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM); particle size distribution and its chemical structure were analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that rutin in the prenanoemulsion has excellent solubility in water with the size approximately 15 nm. The chemical structure of nanorutin in prenanoemulsion was identical to that of the pure rutin. It suggested that there is no chemical modification of rutin in the prenanoemulsion. From high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the amount of rutin in the prenanoemulsion was determined to be 9.27%. The cytotoxic effect of rutin in the preemulsion was investigated via in vitro tests to determine rutin’s efficacy in A549 lung cancer cell and colon cancer cell treatment. The results demonstrated that rutin in the prenanoemulsion could inhibit A549 lung cancer cells and colon cancer cells efficiently.
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Opuntia ficus-indica Fruit and Its Activity against Treated Wastewater Microorganisms
Wastewater can be reused after a treatment process and compliance with high quality standards that guarantee its safe use. The wastewater treatment plant of the Autonomous University of Aguascalientes (AUA), like others, uses primary, secondary, and tertiary processes. The tertiary process followed is chlorination and is used to eliminate microorganisms from the secondary process. Although water of acceptable quality is obtained with chlorine, there is evidence that toxic substances are generated when reacting with organic matter, so alternatives to the use of chlorination have been analyzed. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from the aqueous extract of the Opuntia ficus indica fruit peel (OfAgNPs), by reducing a 2 mM solution of AgNO3. OfAgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering, in addition to his electrophoretic mobility. The OfAgNPs are spherical, with an average particle size distribution of nm, relatively stable at room temperature, negatively charged ( mV), and composed of 61.29% silver. The activity of OfAgNPs was evaluated in water from the effluent of the AUA treatment plant, before and after chlorination, and inhibition of bacteria Escherichia coli var 1, Enterobacter aerogenes var 1, Citrobacter freudi var 2, atypical E. coli, and aerobic mesophilic microorganism was tested.
Evaluation of Osteogenic Potentials of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles with Different Sizes and Shapes
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to be used in the human body as an artificial implant because of their special physicochemical properties. However, information about the effects of TiO2 NPs on preosteoblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation is not clear. In this work, we focus on the impact of TiO2 NPs with different shapes and sizes on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of TiO2 NPs are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Quadrasorb SI analyzer, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential. The MTT results indicate that when the concentration of TiO2 NPs is less than 20 μg/mL, the proliferation of osteoblasts is preserved the most. The expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin is detected by BCA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze the differentiation of osteoblasts. The results indicate that both rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs have a significant inhibiting influence on the differentiation of osteoblasts. Alizarin Red staining is performed on cells to detect the mineralized nodules. The results show that TiO2 NPs can promote the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. Then, we study the oxidative stress response of MC3T3-E1 cells by flow cytometry analysis, and all TiO2 NPs induce the excessive generation of reactive oxide species. On the other hand, our study also shows that the early apoptotic cells increase significantly. TiO2 NPs are swallowed by cells, and then the agglomerated particles enter mitochondria, causing the shape of mitochondria to change and vacuolation to appear. All these results show that TiO2 NPs have certain cytotoxicity to cells, but they also promote the mineralization and maturation of osteoblasts.