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Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
Journal of Nanomaterials maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Recent Development of Catalytic Materials for Ethylbenzene Oxidation
Catalysts are well-known to convert alkylbenzenes at high thermal condition to a number of useful products. However, the current schemes of transformation are not suitable for the hazard-free industrial applications because their reactive intermediates are transformed to a variety of side products that often retard the optimum yield and cause environmental pollutions. It is also observed that the formation of products depends on a wide range of parameters which are extremely difficult to control and often incur extra cost. Recently, heterogeneous catalysts have received huge commercial interests for the oxidation of alkylbenzene into carbonyl compounds which are platform chemicals in various synthetics and fine chemicals. This review is an up-to-date documentary on various catalysts used for the oxidation of alkyl-substituted benzenes along with their reaction condition and selectivity profiles. This work updates our knowledge for the selection and/or design of novel catalysts for the chemists and engineers in the industrial and academic settings.
Electrical Trimming Characteristics of Polysilicon Nanofilms with Different Doping Concentrations and Deposition Temperatures
Polysilicon nanofilm (PSNF) can provide a large gauge factor and good temperature stability, which promotes their application in piezoresistive sensing devices. Electrical trimming is necessary to further improve the stability and matching of piezoresistive resistors after sensor fabrication. The advantages of PSNF are realized by first preparing PSNF samples with different doping concentrations and deposition temperatures. By applying an incremental DC current that is higher than the threshold current of the PSNF resistors, the PSNF resistors are trimmed and the resistance changes are measured. The results of electrical trimming show that the threshold current, trimming rate, and trimming error are related to the doping concentration and deposition temperature. According to tunneling piezoresistive theory and the interstitial-vacancy pair model, the experimental results are expounded. These results are useful for the design and fabrication of PSNF piezoresistive sensors.
Controllable Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Nano-BiOBr Photocatalyst
Nano-BiOBr photocatalysts were successfully prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using the ethylene glycol solution. The nano-BiOBr photocatalysts were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and the catalytic ability toward photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was also explored. The results showed that the crystallinity of the nano-BiOBr photocatalyst decreased with the increase of the concentration, while it increased with the amount of the applied deionized water. The morphology of the nano-BiOBr photocatalyst changed from microspheres to cubes and then to a mixture of microspheres and flakes with the increasing of the concentration and from microspheres to flakes with the addition of the deionized water. The results indicated that the concentration and solvents have an essential influence on the bandgap energy values of the nano-BiOBr photocatalyst, and photocatalyst showed an excellent photocatalyst activity toward photodegradation of RhB. The degradation yields of photocatalyst decreased with the increase of the concentration and increased with the addition of the deionized water. PL intensity of photocatalyst increased with the increase of the concentration and weakened with the addition of the deionized water.
Influence of Graphene Oxide on Interfacial Transition Zone of Mortar
In this paper, the influence of graphene oxide (GO) on the microstructure of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) in cement mortar was investigated through image analysis (IA) of backscattered electron (BSE) micrographs. The results showed that the incorporation of GO significantly reduced the thickness of ITZ. The porosity in ITZ and bulk paste decreased due to the introduction of GO; meanwhile, the compressive strength of the mortar samples was improved. The addition of GO also narrowed the gap between the porosity of ITZ and bulk paste, and therefore, the entire microstructure of mortar became more homogenous. Based on the above results, the model to predict the compressive strength of mortar was modified for better precision. The improved prediction model indicated that the difference between the compressive strength of ITZ and bulk paste was reduced upon the refinement of ITZ by GO.
Ion-Exchanged ZIF-67 Synthesized by One-Step Method for Enhancement of CO2 Adsorption
Li+- and Na+-exchanged ZIF-67 was synthesized by a new one-step method of ion as-exchange technique and tested as CO2 adsorbents. As a comparison, the standard ion-exchange procedure was also carried out. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), particle size analyzer (PSD), and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the effect of ion-exchange techniques on the structure of the materials. CO2 uptake of ZIF-67 ion exchanged by one-step method is much higher than that by the standard ion-exchange procedure. All of the adsorption isotherms show linear patterns with stable adsorption rate from 0 bar to 1 bar, which reveals the materials could get excellent adsorption performance at higher pressure range (>1 bar). Elemental analysis, N2 physical adsorption, and the point of zero charge (PZC) were carried out to confirm the adsorption mechanism. van der Waals interaction determined by the surface area and coordination interaction resulting from electrostatic interaction work in synergy to enhance CO2 adsorption performance of ZIF-67 ion exchanged by the one-step method.
Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Osteogenesis Differentiation through a Combined Treatment of Poly-L-Lysine-Coated PLGA/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Fiber Matrices and Electrical Stimulation
Bone tissue engineering scaffold provides an effective treatment for bone defect repair. Biodegradable bone scaffold made of various synthetic and natural materials can be used as bone substitutes and grafts for defect site, which has great potential to support bone regeneration. Regulation of cell-scaffold material interactions is an important factor for modulating the cellular activity in bone tissue engineering scaffold applications. Thus, the hydrophilic, mechanical, and chemical properties of scaffold materials directly affect the results of bone regeneration and functional recovery. In this study, a poly-L-lysine (PLL) surface-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/graphene oxide (GO) (PLL-PLGA/GO) hybrid fiber matrix was fabricated for bone tissue regeneration. Characterization of the resultant hybrid fiber matrices was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle, and a material testing machine. According to the results obtained from the test above, the PLL-PLGA/GO hybrid fiber matrices exhibited high wettability and mechanical strength. The special surface characteristics of PLL-PLGA/GO hybrid fiber matrices were more beneficial for protein adsorption and inhibit the proliferation of pathogens. Moreover, the enhanced regulation of MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation was observed, when the resultant hybrid fiber matrices were combined with electrical stimulation (ES). The cellular response of MC3T3-E1 cells including cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenesis-related gene expression was significantly enhanced with the synergistic effect of resultant hybrid fiber matrices and ES. These data indicate that the PLL-PLGA/GO hybrid fiber matrices supported the cellular response in terms of cell proliferation and osteogenesis differentiation in the presence of electrical stimulation, which could be a potential treatment for bone defect.