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Journal of Nanomaterials publishes research on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and the applications of nanomaterials.
Journal of Nanomaterials maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Luminescence of Femtosecond Laser-Processed ZnSe Crystal
The ZnSe single crystal treatment in air environment with linearly polarized Ti/sapphire femtosecond (fs)laser pulses of the energy density of around 0.04-0.05 J/cm2 with central wavelength of 800 nm and the pulse duration of 140 fs at a repetition rate of 1 kHz generates the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs). The setup with a cylindrical quartz lens at normal incidence allowed processing a relatively large area of the ZnSe sample in one pass of the laser beam. Morphology analysis of LIPSS by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing reveals the existence of two periods of around 200.0 nm and 630.0 nm simultaneously. All LIPSSs demonstrate the orientation perpendicular to the laser beam polarization. The possible nature of LIPSS formation on ZnSe single crystal is caused by the synergetic influence of the interference mechanism involving surface plasmon polaritons and hydrodynamic effects of surface morphology modification. The fs-laser-induced changes of carrier concentrations in ZnSe specify obtained periods of high spatial frequency LIPSS. The influence of femtosecond laser processing on luminescent properties of ZnSe single crystal has been studied by an analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray luminescence (XRL) spectra of laser-treated and untreated areas in the visible region of spectrum at room and low temperatures. The PL spectra and XRL spectra, as well as temperature dependencies of XRL spectra or thermally stimulated luminescence curves, demonstrate a good correlation for untreated and fs-laser-treated ZnSe surfaces. Specific PL bands related to the extended structural defects do not appear for LIPSS at the ZnSe sample under an excitation of 337 nm (3.68 eV). The Relative intensities and position of separate components of observed luminescence bands after ultrashort laser treatment do not change significantly. Thus, the structural perfection of the ZnSe single crystal surface is preserved.
Characteristics of Metal–Semiconductor–Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on Pure ZnO/Amorphous IGZO Thin-Film Structures
In this study, metal–semiconductor–metal-structured ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) based on pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films were fabricated and characterized. The ZnO seed layers were deposited on Corning glass substrates via a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Results showed that under a 5 V applied bias; the dark currents of the pure ZnO and a-IGZO thin films were 0.112 pA and 2.85 nA, respectively. Meanwhile, the UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the pure ZnO and a-IGZO thin films were 14.33 and 256, respectively. Lastly, the PDs of thea-IGZO thin films had a lower leakage current and higher rejection ratio than that of the pure ZnO thin films from the UV to visible light region.
A Review on Cutting Edge Technologies of Silicon-Based Supercapacitors
Despite Si-based materials and their derivatives have recently emerged as potential electrode materials in advanced energy conversion and storage applications, a review article has not been reported hitherto for Si-based supercapacitors. In this review, the representative progresses of Si-based materials have been illustrated including synthesis, properties, surface modification, and electrochemical properties. A variety of nanomaterials are presented regarding the electrode material design and booming device constructions. Effective strategies for the preparation of Si-based materials and their derivatives are summarized especially including silicon/silicon carbide nanowires, silicon substrates, silicon particles, three-dimensional silicon structures, and silicon-based doping materials. Meanwhile, the overall behaviors in supercapacitor application have been illustrated in terms of specific capacitance, rate capability, cycling life, and energy density. Furthermore, large-voltage microsupercapacitors are outlined for next-generation integration devices.
The Resistive Switching Behavior of Al/Chitosan-Graphene Oxide/FTO Structure
Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is emerging as a new class of nonvolatile memory that offers promising electronic properties and simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for sandwich layers, such as organics, inorganics, and hybrid materials. Hybrid structures have attracted much interest recently because of their advantageous properties. The combination of chitosan (CS) and graphene oxide (GO) acts as switching layers in the Al/CS-GO/FTO RRAM structure it is studied with bipolar switching behavior at approximately 102 ON/OFF ratios during 100 cycles. This hybrid interaction is identified by shifts in the D, G, and 2D bands using Raman spectroscopy. The conduction mechanism is proposed to be a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism and trap-assisted tunneling conduction mechanism in the ON and OFF states, respectively. The trapped and detrapped electrons move through the trap sites with external electric fields, and this movement is responsible for the switching mechanism of the CS-GO nanocomposite memory device.
Chitosan Nanoparticles to Enhance the Inhibitory Effect of Natamycin on Candida albicans
Fungal keratitis is a stubborn fungal infection that is widespread worldwide. It can even affect the health and life of a patient. At present, natamycin (NAT) is the first-line drug in the treatment of fungal keratitis, despite its disadvantages of clinical use, such as low drug bioavailability and poor water solubility. Herein, inspired by the adhesion properties of chitosan and its excellent drug loading and antifungal properties, we designed simple natamycin-chitosan nanoparticles (NAT-NPs) to investigate the feasibility of chitosan with NAT for eye treatment. Results showed that the NAT-NPs increased the antifungal effect of NAT due to the antifungal feature of chitosan NPs. Therefore, NAT-NPs are expected to become potential candidates for the treatment of fungal keratitis due to their high bacteriostasis.
MDR1 Genotypes and Haplotypes Are Closely Associated with Postoperative Fentanyl Consumption in Patients Undergoing Radical Gastrectomy
Fentanyl is a powerful opioid analgesic, and its analgesic effect is greatly different among individuals. This study was aimed at exploring the effects of multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR1) genetic variation on postoperative fentanyl consumption. A total of 135 patients, who planned to undergo radical gastrectomy with general anesthesia, were studied. The subjects received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) by intravenous fentanyl within 48 hours after operation and maintained a numerical rating scale (NRS) . The consumption and side effects of fentanyl were recorded within 24 hours and 48 hours after the operation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of all patients with MDR1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T were screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or DNA sequence analysis after PCR. There was no difference in postoperative fentanyl consumption among patients having 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms (all ). MDR1 1236C>T polymorphisms and haplotypes combined by three SNPs, however, significantly affected postoperative fentanyl consumption (all ). Moreover, 1236TT genotype carriers consumed more fentanyl during 24 hours () and 48 hours () postoperatively. The MDR1 TTT haplotype carriers needed more fentanyl compared with the CGC haplotype carriers during the first 48 hours after surgery (). Nausea, vomiting, and dizziness were not found to have significant differences among the above three SNPs and their haplotypes (). MDR1 1236C>T polymorphism and haplotypes were factors contributing to the individual variability in postoperative fentanyl consumption.