Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2010, Article ID 583234, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/583234
Research Article

Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer Nanocomposites: Morphology, Thermophysical, and Flammability Properties

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0292, USA

Received 4 May 2009; Revised 13 January 2010; Accepted 11 February 2010

Academic Editor: Xiaogong Wang

Copyright © 2010 Wai K. Ho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. H. Koo, D. W. H. Ho, and O. A. Ezekoye, “A review of numerical and experimental characterization of thermal protection materials—part I: numerical modeling,” in Proceedings of the 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, vol. 8, pp. 5895–5945, AIAA, Reston, Va, USA, 2006, AIAA Paper 2006-4936. View at Scopus
  2. J. H. Koo, D. W. H. Ho, M. C. Bruns, and O. A. Ezekoye, “A review of numerical and experimental characterization of thermal protection materials—part II: properties characterization,” in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, pp. 5136–5175, AIAA, Reston, Va, USA, 2007, AIAA Paper 2007-2131. View at Scopus
  3. D. W. K. Ho, J. H. Koo, M. C. Bruns, and O. A. Ezekoye, “A review of numerical and experimental characterization of thermal protection materials—part III: experimental testing,” in Proceedings of the 43rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, vol. 8, pp. 7524–7598, AIAA, Reston, Va, USA, 2007, AIAA Paper 2007-5773. View at Scopus
  4. T. J. Pinnavaia and G. W. Beall, Eds., Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  5. J. H. Koo, Polymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterization, and Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  6. A. B. Morgan and C. A. Wilkie, Eds., Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites, John Wiley & Sons, Hobken, NJ, USA, 2007.
  7. S. N. Bhattacharya, R. K. Gupta, and M. R. Kamal, Polymeric Nanocomposites: Theory and Practice, Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2008.
  8. R. A. Vaia, G. Price, P. N. Ruth, H. T. Nguyen, and J. Lichtenhan, “Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites as high performance ablative materials,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 67–92, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. D. Patton, C. U. Pittman Jr., L. Wang, J. R. Hill, and A. Day, “Ablation, mechanical and thermal conductivity properties of vapor grown carbon fiber/phenolic matrix composites,” Composites A, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 243–251, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. H. Koo, H. Stretz, A. Bray et al., “Nanostructured materials for rocket propulsion system: recent progress,” in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, pp. 3351–3361, AIAA, Reston, Va, USA, 2003, AIAA Paper 2003-1769.
  11. J. H. Koo, H. Stretz, J. T. Weispfenning, Z. Luo, and W. Wootan, “Nanocomposite rocket ablative materials: processing, microstructure, and performance,” in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, pp. 5090–5104, AIAA, Reston, Va, USA, 2004, AIAA Paper 2004-1996. View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Koo and L. A. Pilato, “Thermal properties and microstructures of polymer nanostructured materials,” in Nanoengineering of Structural, Functional, and Smart Materials, M. J. Schulz, A. Kelkar, and M. J. Sundaresan, Eds., pp. 409–441, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. H. Koo, L. A. Pilato, and G. E. Wissler, “Polymer nanostructured materials for propulsion systems,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1250–1262, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. H. Koo, in Polymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterization, and Applications, pp. 10–19, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  15. J. H. Koo, in Polymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterization, and Applications, pp. 19–26, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  16. Z. P. Luo and J. H. Koo, “Quantifying the dispersion of mixture microstructures,” Journal of Microscopy, vol. 225, no. 2, pp. 118–125, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. P. Luo and J. H. Koo, “Quantification of the layer dispersion degree in polymer layered silicate nanocomposites by transmission electron microscopy,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 1841–1852, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. P. Luo and J. H. Koo, “Quantitative study of the dispersion degree in carbon nanofiber/polymer and carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 20, pp. 3493–3496, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. K. Ho, J. H. Koo, J. C. Lee, and O. A. Ezekoye, “Thermophysical properties characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites,” in Proceedings of the 44nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA, Reston, Va, USA, 2008, AIAA Paper 2008-5146.
  20. D. W. K. Ho, J. H. Koo, and O. A. Ezekoye, “Kinetics and thermophysical properties of polymer nanocomposites for solid rocket motor insulation,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 526–544, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Blanksi, J. H. Koo, P. Ruth, H. Nguyen, C. Pittman, and S. Phillips, “Polymer nanostructured materials for solid rocket motor insulation—ablation performance,” in Proceedings of the 52nd JANNAF Propulsion Meeting (CPIAC '04), Columbia, Md, USA, May 2004.
  22. J. B. Henderson, An analytical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of composite ablative materials, Ph.D. dissertation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Okla, USA, 1980.
  23. W. K. Ho, Determination of kinetic parameters and char microstructural analysis of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites for propulsion systems, M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex, USA, December 2007.
  24. D. Marchant, J. H. Koo, R. L. Blanski et al., “Flammability and thermophysical characterization of thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposites,” in Proceedings of the 228th ACS National Meeting, Fire and Polymers Symposium, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2004.
  25. M. C. Bruns, J. H. Koo, and O. A. Ezekoye, “Population-based models of thermoplastic degradation: using optimization to determine model parameters,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1013–1022, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus