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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2011, Article ID 269692, 9 pages
Research Article

Influence of pH, Precursor Concentration, Growth Time, and Temperature on the Morphology of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by the Hydrothermal Method

Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping Campus, 60174 Norrköping, Sweden

Received 7 June 2011; Revised 27 July 2011; Accepted 29 July 2011

Academic Editor: Yanqiu Zhu

Copyright © 2011 G. Amin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We investigated the influence of the pH value, precursor concentration (C), growth time and temperature on the morphology of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. The pH of the starting solution was varied from 1.8 to 12.5. It was found that the final pH reaches an inherent value of 6.6 independently of the initial pH solution. Various ZnO structures of nanotetrapod-like, flower-like, and urchin-like morphology were obtained at alkaline pH (8 to 12.5) whereas for pH solution lower than 8 rod-like nanostructures occurred. Moreover, we observed the erosion of the nanorods for a pH value less than 4.6. By changing the concentrations the density and size were also varied. On going from a high ( mM) to lower ( mM) C, the resulted ZnO nanostructures change from a film to nanorods (NRs) and finally nanowires (NWs). It was also found that the length and diameter of ZnO NRs follow a linear relation with time up to 10 hours, above which no further increase was observed. Finally the effect of growth temperature was seen as an influence on the aspect ratio.