Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 427172, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/427172
Research Article

Urea-Based Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures at Low Temperature

1Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil
2Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN, Brazil
3Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
4Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP, Brazil

Received 17 December 2011; Revised 29 February 2012; Accepted 15 March 2012

Academic Editor: Laécio Santos Cavalcante

Copyright © 2012 J. Z. Marinho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Huang, X. Duan, Q. Wei, and C. M. Lieber, “Directed assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into functional networks,” Science, vol. 291, no. 5504, pp. 630–633, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Q. X. Zhao, M. Willander, R. E. Morjan, Q. H. Hu, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Optical recombination of ZnO nanowires grown on sapphire and Si substrates,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 165–167, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Bitenc and Z. Crnjak Orel, “Synthesis and characterization of crystalline hexagonal bipods of zinc oxide,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 381–387, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. M. Peiró, P. Ravirajan, K. Govender et al., “Hybrid polymer/metal oxide solar cells based on ZnO columnar structures,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 21, pp. 2088–2096, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. K. Srikanth and P. Jeevanandam, “Effect of anion on the homogeneous precipitation of precursors and their thermal decomposition to zinc oxide,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 486, no. 1-2, pp. 677–684, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Ada, M. Goekgoez, M. Oenal, and Y. Sankaya, “Preparation and characterization of a ZnO powder with the hexagonal plate particles,” Powder Technology, vol. 181, no. 3, pp. 285–291, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Cheng, B. Liu, H. Yang et al., “Hierarchical assembly of ZnO nanostructures on SnO2 backbone nanowires: low-temperature hydrothermal preparation and optical properties,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 3069–3076, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Baruah and J. Dutta, “Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 10, no. 1, Article ID 013001, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. D. G. Ram, M. A. Kulandainathan, and G. Ravi, “On the study of pH effects in the microwave enhanced rapid synthesis of nano-ZnO,” Applied Physics A, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 197–203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. A. M. Lima, M. Cremona, M. R. Davolos, C. Legnani, and W. G. Quirino, “Electroluminescence of zinc oxide thin-films prepared via polymeric precursor and via sol-gel methods,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 2–4, pp. 165–169, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Music, S. Popovic, M. Maljkovic, and E. Dragcevic, “Influence of synthesis procedure on the formation and properties of zinc oxide,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 347, no. 1-2, pp. 324–332, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  12. A. M. Peiro, C. Domingo, J. Peral et al., “Nanostructured zinc oxide films grown from microwave activated aqueous solutions,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 483, no. 1-2, pp. 79–83, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Tan, and Z. Huang, “Synthesis of zinc oxide nanotetrapods by a novel fast microemulsion-based hydrothermal method,” Materials Letters, vol. 64, no. 20, pp. 2191–2193, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Mo, J. C. Yu, L. Zhang, and S. K. A. Li, “Self-assembly of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets into hollow microhemispheres and microspheres,” Advanced Materials, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 756–760, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Wei, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu et al., “Growth mechanism of tubular ZnO formed in aqueous solution,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1740–1744, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. R. Chen, X. Jiao, and G. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide powders with different morphologies,” Solid State Communications, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 363–366, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. H. Lu and C. H. Yeh, “Influence of hydrothermal conditions on the morphology and particle size of zinc oxide powder,” Ceramics International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 351–357, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. P. de Moura, R. C. Lima, M. L. Moreira et al., “ZnO architectures synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and their photoluminescence properties,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 181, no. 15-16, pp. 775–780, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y.-C. Chen and S. L. Lo, “Effects of operational conditions of microwave-assisted synthesis on morphology and photocatalytic capability of zinc oxide,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 170, no. 2-3, pp. 411–418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. N. Dem'yanets, V. V. Artemov, L. E. Li, Y. M. Mininzon, and T. G. Uvarova, “Zinc oxide hollow microstructures and nanostructures formed under hydrothermal conditions,” Crystallography Reports, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 888–893, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. P. Fang, X. Wen, S. Yang et al., “Hydrothermal synthesis and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured films directly grown from/on zinc substrates,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 227–234, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. G. Kim, K. Sung, T. M. Chung, D. Y. Jung, and Y. Kim, “Monodispersed ZnO nanoparticles from a single molecular precursor,” Chemical Communications, vol. 9, no. 16, pp. 2068–2069, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. L. Wang, E. Wang, E. Shen et al., “Growth of ZnO nanoparticles from nanowhisker precursor with a simple solvothermal route,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 2298–2302, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Savary, S. Marinel, H. Colder, C. Harnois, F. X. Lefevre, and R. Retoux, “Microwave sintering of nano-sized ZnO synthesized by a liquid route,” Powder Technology, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 521–525, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. L. Dos Santos, R. C. Lima, C. S. Riccardi et al., “Preparation and characterization of ceria nanospheres by microwave-hydrothermal method,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 30, pp. 4509–4511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. S. Cavalcante, J. C. Sczancoski, J. W. M. Espinosa, J. A. Varela, P. S. Pizani, and E. Longo, “Photoluminescent behavior of BaWO4 powders processed in microwave-hydrothermal,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 474, no. 1-2, pp. 195–200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. F. Huang, C. Xia, L. Cao, and X. Zeng, “Facile microwave hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide one-dimensional nanostructure with three-dimensional morphology,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 187–193, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Wahab, S. G. Ansari, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Dar, and H. S. Shin, “Synthesis and characterization of hydrozincite and its conversion into zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 461, no. 1-2, pp. 66–71, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. F. Zou, D. Yu, D. Wang et al., “Controlled synthesis of ZNO nanocrystals with column-, rosette-and fiber-like morphologies and their photoluminescence property,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 150–154, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. A. Cao, B. Liu, R. Huang, Z. Xia, and S. Ge, “Flash synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures by microwave-induced combustion process,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 160–163, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. W. Zhang, W. Wang, P. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Z. Wu, “Synthesis of small diameter ZnO nanorods via refluxing route in alcohol-water mixing solution containing zinc salt and urea,” Materials Letters, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 592–594, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S.-H. Hu, Y. C. Chen, C. C. Hwang, C. H. Peng, and D. C. Gong, “Analysis of growth parameters for hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles through a statistical experimental design method,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 45, no. 19, pp. 5309–5317, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. L. Wu, Y. Wu, and Y. Lü, “Self-assembly of small ZnO nanoparticles toward flake-like single crystals,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 128–133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Bitenc, M. Marinšek, and Z. Crnjak Orel, “Preparation and characterization of zinc hydroxide carbonate and porous zinc oxide particles,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2915–2921, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Li, Y. Lv, L. Guo, H. Xu, X. Ai, and J. Zhang, “Raman and excitonic photoluminescence characterizations of ZnO star-shaped nanocrystals,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 122-123, no. 1-2, pp. 415–417, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. F. Windisch Jr, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 101, no. 12, Article ID 123711, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, H. Deng, G. J. You, and S. X. Qian, “Raman spectra of single micrometer-sized tubular ZnO,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 160–163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. S. Lee and S. C. Choi, “Crystallization behavior of nano-ceria powders by hydrothermal synthesis using a mixture of H2O2 and NH4OH,” Materials Letters, vol. 58, no. 3-4, pp. 390–393, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Komarneni, Q. H. Li, and R. Roy, “Microwave-hydrothermal processing for synthesis of layered and network phosphates,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1903–1906, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Komarneni, R. Pidugu, Q. H. Li, and R. Roy, “Microwave-hydrothermal processing of metal powders,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1687–1692, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. L. Kieke, J. W. Schoppelrei, and T. B. Brill, “Spectroscopy of hydrothermal reactions. 1. The CO2-H2O system and kinetics of urea decomposition in an FTIR spectroscopy flow reactor cell operable to 725 K and 335 bar,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 18, pp. 7455–7462, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Kakiuchi, E. Hosono, T. Kimura, H. Imai, and S. Fujihara, “Fabrication of mesoporous ZnO nanosheets from precursor templates grown in aqueous solutions,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Longo, E. Orhan, F. M. Pontes et al., “Density functional theory calculation of the electronic structure of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3: photoluminescent properties and structural disorder,” Physical Review B, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 125115–125117, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  44. V. M. Longo, E. Orhan, L. S. Cavalcante et al., “Understanding the origin of photoluminescence in disordered Ca0.60Sr0.40WO4: an experimental and first-principles study,” Chemical Physics, vol. 334, no. 1–3, pp. 180–188, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. C. Lima, L. R. Macario, J. W. M. Espinosa et al., “Toward an understanding of intermediate- and short-range defects in ZnO single crystals. A combined experimental and theoretical study,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 112, no. 38, pp. 8970–8978, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. C. Lima, J. Andres, J. R. Sambrano et al., Photoluminescence: Applications, Types and Efficacy: An Overview on the Photoluminescence Emission in ZnO Single Crystal: A Joint Experimental and Theoretical Analysis, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2012.
  47. L. Gracia, J. Andrés, V. M. Longo, J. A. Varela, and E. Longo, “A theoretical study on the photoluminescence of SrTiO3,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 493, no. 1–3, pp. 141–146, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus