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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 486301, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/486301
Review Article

Nanostructures for Medical Diagnostics

1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76011, USA
2Nanotechnology Research and Teaching Facility, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
3Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76010, USA
4Joint Graduate Committee of Bioengineering Program, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76010, USA
5Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76010, USA

Received 22 June 2011; Revised 30 September 2011; Accepted 19 October 2011

Academic Editor: Xing J. Liang

Copyright © 2012 Md. Motasim Bellah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanotechnology is the art of manipulating materials on atomic or molecular scales especially to build nanoscale structures and devices. The field is expanding quickly, and a lot of work is ongoing in the design, characterization, synthesis, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale. In the last few years, much work has been focused on the use of nanostructures toward problems of biology and medicine. In this paper, we focus on the application of various nanostructures and nanodevices in clinical diagnostics and detection of important biological molecules. The discussion starts by introducing some basic techniques of micro-/nanoscale fabrication that have enabled reproducible production of nanostructures. The prospects, benefits, and limitations of using these novel techniques in the fields of biodetection and medical diagnostics are then discussed. Finally, the challenges of mass production and acceptance of nanotechnology by the medical community are considered.