Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 486301, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/486301
Review Article

Nanostructures for Medical Diagnostics

1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76011, USA
2Nanotechnology Research and Teaching Facility, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
3Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76010, USA
4Joint Graduate Committee of Bioengineering Program, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76010, USA
5Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76010, USA

Received 22 June 2011; Revised 30 September 2011; Accepted 19 October 2011

Academic Editor: Xing J. Liang

Copyright © 2012 Md. Motasim Bellah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 2115–2120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: extension from particle pairs to nanoshells,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2854–2858, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1578–1586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. L. Zhang and T. J. Webster, “Nanotechnology and nanomaterials: promises for improved tissue regeneration,” Nano Today, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 66–80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Shen, X. Hu, J. Bei, and S. Wang, “The immobilization of basic fibroblast growth factor on plasma-treated poly(lactide-co-glycolide),” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2388–2399, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. J. Carpenter, D. Khang, and T. J. Webster, “Nanometer polymer surface features: the influence on surface energy, protein adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 50, Article ID 505103, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. S. Moon, W. Song, N. Kim et al., “Current-carrying capacity of double-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 23, Article ID 235201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. G. Park, S. Li, R. Liang, X. Fan, C. Zhang, and B. Wang, “The high current-carrying capacity of various carbon nanotube-based buckypapers,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 18, Article ID 185710, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. F. Patolsky, B. P. Timko, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire-based nanoelectronic devices in the life sciences,” MRS Bulletin-Materials Research Society, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 142–149, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Kerman, M. Saito, E. Tamiya, S. Yamamura, and Y. Takamura, “Nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors for medical applications,” TrAC—Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 585–592, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. E. Brunker, K. B. Cederquist, and C. D. Keating, “Metallic barcodes for multiplexed bioassays,” Nanomedicine, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 695–710, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. L. G. Carrascosa, M. Moreno, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanomechanical biosensors: a new sensing tool,” TrAC—Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 196–206, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. J. Seo, J. Lim, E. H. Lee et al., “Base pair opening kinetics study of the aegPNA: DNA hydrid duplex containing a site-specific GNA-like chiral PNA monomer,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 7329–7335, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. J. B. Raoof, R. Ojani, S. M. Golabi, E. Hamidi-Asl, and M. S. Hejazi, “Preparation of an electrochemical PNA biosensor for detection of target DNA sequence and single nucleotide mutation on p53 tumor suppressor gene corresponding oligonucleotide,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 195–201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. Z. Gao, A. Agarwal, A. D. Trigg et al., “Silicon nanowire arrays for label-free detection of DNA,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 3291–3297, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang et al., “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5464, pp. 316–318, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Ferrari, “Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 161–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. S. Wolf and R. N. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era: Process Technology, vol. 1, Lattice Press, Sunset Beach, Calif, USA, 1986.
  19. D. Xia, D. Li, Z. Ku, Y. Luo, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Top-down approaches to the formation of silica nanoparticle patterns,” Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 5377–5385, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. D. Li, J. T. McCann, Y. Xia, and M. Marquez, “Electrospinning: a simple and versatile technique for producing ceramic nanofibers and nanotubes,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 1861–1869, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Stern, J. F. Klemic, D. A. Routenberg et al., “Label-free immunodetection with CMOS-compatible semiconducting nanowires,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7127, pp. 519–522, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. O. A. Saleh and L. L. Sohn, “Direct detection of antibody-antigen binding using an on-chip artificial pore,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 820–824, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. K. K. Jain, “Nanodiagnostics: application of nanotechnology in molecular diagnostics,” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 153–161, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. S. M. Iqbal and R. Bashir, Eds., Nanopores: Sensing and Fundamental Biological Interactions, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2011.
  25. B. M. Venkatesan and R. Bashir, “Nanopore sensors for nucleic acid analysis,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 615–624, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. V. Balzani, “Nanoscience and nanotechnology: a personal view of a chemist,” Small, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 278–283, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. N. A. Ochekpe, P. O. Olorunfemi, and N. C. Ngwuluka, “Nanotechnology and drug delivery part 1: background and applications,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 265–274, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Rauf, A. Glidle, and J. M. Cooper, “Production of quantum dot barcodes using biological self-assembly,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 40, pp. 4020–4024, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. A. E. Valentin, A. Filoramo, A. Ribayrol et al., “Self-assembly fabrication of high performance carbon nanotubes based FETs,” Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 772, pp. 201–207, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  30. T. Liu, C. Burger, and B. Chu, “Nanofabrication in polymer matrices,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 5–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Hyman, R. Valluzzi, and E. Goldberg, “Design of protein struts for self-assembling nanoconstructs,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 13, pp. 8488–8493, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. D. Shu, W. D. Moll, Z. Deng, C. Mao, and P. Guo, “Bottom-up assembly of RNA arrays and superstructures as potential parts in nanotechnology,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1717–1723, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. D. D. Majumder, R. Banerjee, C. Ulrichs, I. Mewis, and A. Goswami, “Nano-materials: science of bottom-up and top-down,” The Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 9–25, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Shimomura and T. Sawadaishi, “Bottom-up strategy of materials fabrication: a new trend in nanotechnology of soft materials,” Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. K. Jain, “Applications of nanobiotechnology in clinical diagnostics,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 2002–2009, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. K. K. Jain, “Nanotechnology in clinical laboratory diagnostics,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 358, no. 1-2, pp. 37–54, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. D. C. Miller, A. Thapa, K. M. Haberstroh, and T. J. Webster, “Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell function on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with nano-structured surface features,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Wan, M. A. I. Mahmood, N. Li et al., “Nanotextured substrates with immobilized aptamers for cancer cell isolation and cytology,” Cancer, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 1145–1154, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. P. Kim, D. H. Kim, B. Kim et al., “Fabrication of nanostructures of polyethylene glycol for applications to protein adsorption and cell adhesion,” Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2420–2426, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. K. P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 121, no. 34, pp. 7925–7930, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. M. Demers, D. S. Ginger, S. J. Park, Z. Li, S. W. Chung, and C. A. Mirkin, “Direct patterning of modified oligonucleotides on metals and insulators by dip-pen nanolithography,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5574, pp. 1836–1838, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. A. Bruckbauer, L. Ying, A. M. Rothery et al., “Writing with DNA and protein using a nanopipet for controlled delivery,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 30, pp. 8810–8811, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K.-B. Lee, E.-Y. Kim, C. A. Mirkin, and S. M. Wolinsky, “The use of nanoarrays for highly sensitive and selective detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in plasma,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1869–1872, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. K. Kang, J. Seo, D. D. Carlo, Y. K. Choi, and L. P. Lee, “Planar nanogap capacitor arrays on quartz for optical and dielectric bioassays,” in Proceedings of the Micro Total Analsysis Systems, pp. 697–700, Squaw Valley, Calif, USA, 2003.
  45. C. Buzea, I. I. Pacheco, and K. Robbie, “Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity,” Biointerphases, vol. 2, no. 4, 55 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. E. Boisselier and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles in nanomedicine: preparations, imaging, diagnostics, therapies and toxicity,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1759–1782, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Fu, P. Li, T. Wang et al., “Novel polymeric bionanocomposites with catalytic Pt nanoparticles label immobilized for high performance amperometric immunoassay,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1699–1704, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, C. A. Mirkin, R. P. van Duyne, and H. A. Godwin, “Color my nanoworld,” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 81, no. 4, p. 544, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. P. Baptista, E. Pereira, P. Eaton et al., “Gold nanoparticles for the development of clinical diagnosis methods,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 391, no. 3, pp. 943–950, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. S. J. Park, T. A. Taton, and C. A. Mirkin, “Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5559, pp. 1503–1506, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. H. M. E. Azzazy, M. M. H. Mansour, and S. C. Kazmierczak, “Nanodiagnostics: a new frontier for clinical laboratory medicine,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1238–1246, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 14, pp. 7238–7248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles,” Langmuir, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. C. Y. Zhang, H. C. Yeh, M. T. Kuroki, and T. H. Wang, “Single-quantum-dot-based DNA nanosensor,” Nature Materials, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 826–831, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. K. Herr, J. E. Smith, C. D. Medley, D. Shangguan, and W. Tan, “Aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles for selective collection and detection of cancer cells,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 2918–2924, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. H. Lee, K. Y. Mi, S. Park et al., “Thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and application as a dual imaging probe for cancer in vivo,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 42, pp. 12739–12745, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. A. Moore, Z. Medarova, A. Potthast, and G. Dai, “In vivo targeting of underglycosylated MUC-1 tumor antigen using a multimodal imaging probe,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 1821–1827, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. J. Kasianowicz, E. Brandin, D. Branton, and D. W. Deamer, “Characterization of individual polynucleotide molecules using a membrane channel,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 93, no. 24, pp. 13770–13773, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Clarke, H. C. Wu, L. Jayasinghe, A. Patel, S. Reid, and H. Bayley, “Continuous base identification for single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 265–270, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. O. A. Saleh and L. L. Sohn, “An artificial nanopore for molecular sensing,” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 37–38, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, “Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions,” Small, vol. 2, no. 8-9, pp. 967–972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. A. Han, M. Creus, G. Schürmann et al., “Label-free detection of single protein molecules and protein-protein interactions using synthetic nanopores,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 4651–4658, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  63. R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov, and W. A. de Heer, “Carbon nanotubes—the route toward applications,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 787–792, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. J. Li, H. T. Ng, A. Cassell et al., “Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode array for ultrasensitive DNA detection,” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 597–602, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Wang, G. Liu, and M. R. Jan, “Ultrasensitive electrical biosensing of proteins and DNA: carbon-nanotube derived amplification of the recognition and transduction events,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 3010–3011, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. H. I. Liu, D. K. Biegelsen, F. A. Ponce, N. M. Johnson, and R. F. W. Pease, “Self-limiting oxidation for fabricating sub-5 nm silicon nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1383–1385, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. K. Bera et al., “High-performance fully depleted silicon nanowire (diameter 5 nm) gate-all-around CMOS devices,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 383–386, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Ratilainen, A. Holmén, E. Tuite, P. E. Nielsen, and B. Nordén, “Thermodynamics of sequence-specifc binding of PNA to DNA,” Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 26, pp. 7781–7791, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Egholm, O. Buchardt, L. Christensen et al., “PNA hybridizes to complementary oligonucleotides obeying the Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding rules,” Nature, vol. 365, no. 6446, pp. 566–568, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. J. J. Schmidt and C. D. Montemagno, “Using machines in cells,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 500–503, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. I. Hahm and C. M. Lieber, “Direct ultrasensitive electrical detection of DNA and DNA sequence variations using nanowire nanosensors,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 51–54, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. B. He, T. J. Morrow, and C. D. Keating, “Nanowire sensors for multiplexed detection of biomolecules,” Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 522–528, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. S. R. Nicewarner-Pena, R. G. Freeman, B. D. Reiss et al., “Submicrometer metallic barcodes,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5540, pp. 137–141, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  74. C. D. Keating and M. J. Natan, “Striped metal nanowires as building blocks and optical tags,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 451–454, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire-based biosensors,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 78, no. 13, pp. 4260–4269, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5533, pp. 1289–1292, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species,” Nature Protocols, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1711–1724, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1294–1301, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  79. B. H. T. Jeffrey, F. Y. S. Chuang, M. C. Kao et al., “Metallic striped nanowires as multiplexed immunoassay platforms for pathogen detection,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 45, no. 41, pp. 6900–6904, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  80. M. Y. Sha, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton et al., “Multiplexed SNP genotyping using nanobarcode particle technology,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 384, no. 3, pp. 658–666, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. J. H. Chua, R. E. Chee, A. Agarwal, S. M. Wong, and G. J. Zhang, “Label-free electrical detection of cardiac biomarker with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon nanowire sensor arrays,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 6266–6271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  82. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Materials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 183–191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  83. A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao et al., “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 902–907, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang et al., “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Communications, vol. 146, no. 9-10, pp. 351–355, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Y. Song, K. Qu, C. Zhao, J. Ren, and X. Qu, “Graphene oxide: intrinsic peroxidase catalytic activity and its application to glucose detection,” Advanced Materials, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 2206–2210, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  86. B. Su, J. Tang, J. Huang et al., “Graphene and nanogold-functionalized immunosensing interface with enhanced sensitivity for one-step electrochemical immunoassay of α-fetoprotein in human serum,” Electroanalysis, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 2720–2728, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Z. Zhong, W. Wu, D. Wang et al., “Nanogold-enwrapped graphene nanocomposites as trace labels for sensitivity enhancement of electrochemical immunosensors in clinical immunoassays: carcinoembryonic antigen as a model,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2379–2383, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. D. Du, Z. Zou, Y. Shin et al., “Sensitive immunosensor for cancer biomarker based on dual signal amplification strategy of graphene sheets and multienzyme functionalized carbon nanospheres,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 2989–2995, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. Y. Wang, Z. Li, D. Hu, C. T. Lin, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Aptamer/graphene oxide nanocomplex for in situ molecular probing in living cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 27, pp. 9274–9276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. V. L. Colvin, “The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1166–1170, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  91. E. Oberdörster, “Manufactured nanomaterials (fullerenes, C60) induce oxidative stress in the brain of juvenile largemouth bass,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1058–1062, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. M. Nam, C. S. Thaxton, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5641, pp. 1884–1886, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  93. T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5485, pp. 1757–1760, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. L. Lasseter, W. Cai, and R. J. Hamers, “Frequency-dependent electrical detection of protein binding events,” Analyst, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. A. Nemmar, A. Delaunois, B. Nemery et al., “Inflammatory effect of intratracheal instillation of ultrafine particles in the rabbit: role of C-fiber and mast cells,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 250–261, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  96. S. Utsunomiya, K. A. Jensen, G. J. Keeler, and R. C. Ewing, “Direct identification of trace metals in fine and ultrafine particles in the Detroit urban atmosphere,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2289–2297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. K. J. Nikula, K. J. Avila, W. C. Griffith, and J. L. Mauderly, “Sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust and coal dust in rats and cynomolgus monkeys,” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 105, supplement 5, pp. 1231–1234, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. A. D. Guzmán, M. R. Taylor, and J. F. Banfield, “Environmental risks of nanotechnology: national nanotechnology initiative funding, 2000–2004,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1401–1407, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. Grabinski, S. Hussain, K. Lafdi, L. Braydich-Stolle, and J. Schlager, “Effect of particle dimension on biocompatibility of carbon nanomaterials,” Carbon, vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 2828–2835, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. A. Shvedova, E. Kisin, A. Murray et al., “Exposure of human bronchial cells to carbon nanotubes caused oxidative stress and cytotoxicity,” 2004. View at Google Scholar
  101. S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 975–983, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  102. L. Braydich-Stolle, S. Hussain, J. J. Schlager, and M. C. Hofmann, “In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 412–419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  103. T. Tsuchiya, I. Oguri, Y. N. Yamakoshi, and N. Miyata, “Novel harmful effects of [60] fullerene on mouse embryos in vitro and in vivo,” FEBS Letters, vol. 393, no. 1, pp. 139–145, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J. S. Kim, T. J. Yoon, K. N. Yu et al., “Toxicity and tissue distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in mice,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 338–347, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  105. P. V. Asharani, N. G. B. Serina, M. H. Nurmawati, Y. L. Wu, Z. Gong, and S. Valiyaveettil, “Impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on aquatic species,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 3603–3609, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. M. Hussain, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand et al., “Toxicity evaluation for safe use of nanomaterials: recent achievements and technical challenges,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 1549–1559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus