Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 506209, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/506209
Review Article

Fabrication of Microscale Carbon Nanotube Fibers

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798

Received 13 October 2011; Accepted 16 December 2011

Academic Editor: Teng Li

Copyright © 2012 Gengzhi Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. F. Yu, O. Lourie, M. J. Dyer, K. Moloni, T. F. Kelly, and R. S. Ruoff, “Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load,” Science, vol. 287, no. 5453, pp. 637–640, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, and R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, no. 24, pp. 5552–5555, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. G. Demczyk, Y. M. Wang, J. Cumings et al., “Direct mechanical measurement of the tensile strength and elastic modulus of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 334, no. 1-2, pp. 173–178, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, H. Dai, P. Petit et al., “Crystalline ropes of metallic carbon nanotubes,” Science, vol. 273, no. 5274, pp. 483–487, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Frank, P. Poncharal, Z. L. Wang, and W. A. de Heer, “Carbon nanotube quantum resistors,” Science, vol. 280, no. 5370, pp. 1744–1746, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Hone, M. Whitney, and A. Zettl, “Thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 103, no. 1-3, pp. 2498–2499, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Berber, Y. K. Kwon, and D. Tománek, “Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, no. 20, pp. 4613–4616, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Q. W. Li, Y. Li, X. F. Zhang et al., “Structure-dependent electrical properties of carbon nanotube fibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 20, pp. 3358–3363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. X. F. Zhang, Q. W. Li, T. G. Holesinger et al., “Ultrastrong, stiff, and lightweight carbon-nanotube fibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 4198–4201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. X. F. Zhang, Q. W. Li, Y. Tu et al., “Strong carbon-nanotube fibers spun from long carbon-nanotube arrays,” Small, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 244–248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Q. W. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. F. DePaula et al., “Sustained growth of ultralong carbon nanotube arrays for fiber spinning,” Advanced Materials, vol. 18, no. 23, pp. 3160–3163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. X. Zheng, G. Z. Sun, and Z. Y. Zhan, “Tuning array morphology for high-strength carbon-nanotube fibers,” Small, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 132–137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Behabtu, M. J. Green, and M. Pasquali, “Carbon nanotube-based neat fibers,” Nano Today, vol. 3, no. 5-6, pp. 24–34, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Vigolo, A. Penicaud, C. Coulon et al., “Macroscopic fibers and ribbons of oriented carbon nanotubes,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5495, pp. 1331–1334, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. B. Dalton, S. Collins, J. Razal et al., “Continuous carbon nanotube composite fibers: properties, potential applications, and problems,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. M. Ericson, H. Fan, H. Q. Peng et al., “Macroscopic, neat, single-walled carbon nanotube fibers,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5689, pp. 1447–1450, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. E. Kozlov, R. C. Capps, W. M. Sampson et al., “Spinning solid and hollow polymer-free carbon nanotube fibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 614–617, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. Néri, M. Maugey, P. Miaudet, A. Derré, C. Zakri, and P. Poulin, “Surfactant-free spinning of composite carbon nanotube fibers,” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1035–1038, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. L. Jiang, Q. Q. Li, and S. S. Fan, “Nanotechnology: spinning continuous carbon nanotube yarnsyarns—carbon nanotubes weave their way into a range of imaginative macroscopic applications,” Nature, vol. 419, p. 801, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Zhang, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Multifunctional carbon nanotube yarns by downsizing an ancient technology,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5700, pp. 1358–1361, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. X. Zheng, X. F. Zhang, Q. W. Li et al., “Carbon-nanotube cotton for large-scale fibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 2567–2570, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Ci, N. Punbusayakul, J. Wei, R. Vajtai, S. Talapatra, and P. M. Ajayan, “Multifunctional macroarchitectures of double-walled carbon nanotube fibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1719–1723, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. L. Li, I. A. Kinloch, and A. H. Windle, “Direct spinning of carbon nanotube fibers from chemical vapor deposition synthesis,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5668, pp. 276–278, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Koziol, J. Vilatela, A. Moisala et al., “High-performance carbon nanotube fiber,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5858, pp. 1892–1895, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Z. Sun, S. W. Liu, K. F. Hua, X. Y. Lv, L. Huang, and Y. J. Wang, “Electrochemical chlorine sensor with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrocatalysts,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 2436–2440, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. N. Zhang and L. X. Zheng, “Towards chirality-pure carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 1919–1929, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. B. Xu, K. F. Hua, G. Z. Sun, X. Y. Lv, and Y. J. Wang, “Electrooxidation of methanol on carbon nanotubes supported Pt-Fe alloy electrode,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 982–986, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. C. P. Watts, W. K. Hsu, H. W. Kroto, and D. R. M. Walton, “Are bulk defective carbon nanotubes less electrically conducting?” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 549–553, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Star, Y. Liu, K. Grant et al., “Noncovalent side-wall functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Macromolecules, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 553–560, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. S. P. Shaffer and A. H. Windle, “Analogies between polymer solutions and carbon nanotube dispersions,” Macromolecules, vol. 32, no. 20, pp. 6864–6866, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Mercader, A. Lucas, A. Derré et al., “Kinetics of fiber solidification,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 43, pp. 18331–18335, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Vigolo, P. Poulin, M. Lucas, P. Launois, and P. Bernier, “Improved structure and properties of single-wall carbon nanotube spun fibers,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 1210–1212, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Munoz, A. B. Dalton, S. Collins et al., “Multifunctional carbon nanotube composite fibers,” Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 801–804, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. P. Miaudet, S. Badaire, M. Maugey et al., “Hot-drawing of single and multiwall carbon nanotube fibers for high toughness and alignment,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 2212–2215, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. B. Dalton, S. Collins, E. Munoz et al., “Super-tough carbon-nanotube fibres—these extraordinary composite fibres can be woven into electronic textiles,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6941, p. 703, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  36. C. Lynam, S. E. Moulton, and G. G. Wallace, “Carbon-nanotube biofibers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1244–1248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. H. Song and A. H. Windle, “Isotropic-nematic phase transition of dispersions of multiwall carbon nanotubes,” Macromolecules, vol. 38, no. 14, pp. 6181–6188, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Song, I. A. Kinloch, and A. H. Windle, “Nematic liquid crystallinity of multiwall carbon nanotubes,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5649, p. 1363, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. J. Zhang, K. K. K. Koziol, I. A. Kinloch, and A. H. Windle, “Macroscopic fibers of well-aligned carbon nanotubes by wet spinning,” Small, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1217–1222, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Zhang, S. L. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov et al., “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5738, pp. 1215–1219, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Xiao, Z. Chen, C. Feng et al., “Flexible, stretchable, transparent carbon nanotube thin film loudspeakers,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 4539–4545, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Feng, K. Liu, J. S. Wu et al., “Flexible, stretchable, transparent conducting films made from superaligned carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 885–891, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. H. Sun, K. Liu, J. Miao et al., “Highly sensitive surface-enhanced raman scattering substrate made from superaligned carbon nanotubes,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1747–1753, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Z. Sun, J. Y. Zhou, F. Yu, Y. N. Zhang, J. H. L. Pang, and L. X. Zheng, “Electrochemical capacitive properties of CNT fibers spun from vertically aligned CNT arrays,” Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. L. X. Zheng, M. J. O'Connell, S. K. Doorn et al., “Ultra-long single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nature Materials, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 673–676, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. Y. Zhan, Y. N. Zhang, G. Z. Sun, L. X. Zheng, and K. Liao, “The effects of catalyst treatment on fast growth of millimeter-long multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 17, pp. 7704–7708, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. L. Zheng, B. C. Satishkumar, P. Q. Gao, and Q. Zhang, “Kinetics studies of ultra-long single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 25, pp. 10896–10900, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. K. Doorn, L. X. Zheng, M. J. O'Connell, Y. T. Zhu, S. M. Huang, and J. Liu, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging of ultralong carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 9, pp. 3751–3758, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. J. Jia, J. N. Zhao, G. Xu et al., “A comparison of the mechanical properties of fibers spun from different carbon nanotubes,” Carbon, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1333–1339, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. X. B. Zhang, K. L. Jiang, C. Feng et al., “Spinning and processing continuous yarns from 4-inch wafer scale super-aligned carbon nanotube arrays,” Advanced Materials, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1505–1510, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y. Wei, K. L. Jiang, X. F. Feng et al., “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Physical Review B, vol. 76, no. 4, Article ID 045423, 7 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. V. K. Rangari, M. Yousuf, S. Jeelani, M. X. Pulikkathara, and V. N. Khabashesku, “Alignment of carbon nanotubes and reinforcing effects in nylon-6 polymer composite fibers,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 24, Article ID 245703, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. J. Lanticse, Y. Tanabe, K. Matsui et al., “Shear-induced preferential alignment of carbon nanotubes resulted in anisotropic electrical conductivity of polymer composites,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 14, pp. 3078–3086, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. H. Gommans, J. W. Alldredge, H. Tashiro, J. Park, J. Magnuson, and A. G. Rinzler, “Fibers of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes: polarized Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 2509–2514, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. V. Pichot, M. Burghammer, S. Badaire et al., “X-ray microdiffraction study of single-walled carbon nanotube alignment across a fibre,” Europhysics Letters, vol. 79, no. 4, Article ID 46002, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. W. Zhu, C. L. Xu, D. H. Wu, B. Q. Wei et al., “Direct synthesis of long single-walled carbon nanotube strands,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5569, pp. 884–886, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. G. Tibbetts, C. A. Bernardo, D. W. Gorkiewicz, and R. L. Alig, “Role of sulfur in the production of carbon fibers in the vapor phase,” Carbon, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 569–576, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Motta, Y. L. Li, I. Kinloch, and A. Windle, “Mechanical properties of continuously spun fibers of carbon nanotubes,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1529–1533, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Motta, A. Moisala, I. A. Kinloch, and A. H. Windle, “High performance fibres from “dog bone” carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 3721–3726, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. X. H. Zhang and Q. W. Li, “Enhancement of friction between carbon nanotubes: an efficient strategy to strengthen fibers,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 312–316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus