Figure 1: (a) DIC image of gold nanopatterned AFP chip with a spot diameter of 100 nm and (inner) SEM image of individual gold spots. (b) Schematic diagram of the AFP sandwich fluorescence immunoassay. (c) Schematic diagram showing the TIRFM detection system. L: laser; HL: halogen lamp; P: transmitted all-side polished dove-type prism; GNC: gold nanopatterned chip; OL: objective lens; BF: band-pass filter; C: charge-coupled device.