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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 715838, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/715838
Research Article

Cytotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes on J774 Macrophages Is a Purification-Dependent Effect

1Departamento de Energías Renovables y Protección al Medio Ambiente, Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, CHIH, Mexico
2Departamento de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, 31125 Chihuahua, CHIH, Mexico

Received 16 February 2012; Revised 3 May 2012; Accepted 8 May 2012

Academic Editor: Krasimir Vasilev

Copyright © 2012 Silvia Lorena Montes-Fonseca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The cytotoxicity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is an important factor for the manufacture of nanovaccines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship of the purification method of CNTs in cellular toxicity using macrophages (MOs) from the J774 cell line. Viability test was performed with MTT assays at 24 h of exposure at concentrations of 0.06, 0.6, and 6 mg/L of unpurified (UP-CNTs) or purified (P-CNTs) CNTs by two different methods: (1) reflux with 3M HNO3 and (2) sonication in H2SO4/HNO3. Characterization and COOH content of CNTs was performed using scanning electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and titration with NaHCO3. P-CNTs1 had lengths >100 μm and 2.76% COOH content, while P-CNTs2 had lengths >1 μm and 7% COOH content. This last particle showed a lower toxic effect. The results suggest that the lenght and COOH content are important factors in the toxicity of the CNTs.