Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 734842, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/734842
Review Article

Positive Contrast Imaging of SPIO Nanoparticles

Department of Electronic Science and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Received 14 December 2011; Revised 19 January 2012; Accepted 27 February 2012

Academic Editor: Carlos Martinez-Boubeta

Copyright © 2012 Chenghong Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Boyer, M. R. Whittaker, V. Bulmus, J. Liu, and T. P. Davis, “The design and utility of polymer-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications,” NPG Asia Materials, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23–30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. T. Shen, R. Weissleder, M. Papisov, A. Bogdanov, and T. J. Brady, “Monocrystalline iron oxide nanocompounds (MION): physicochemical properties,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 599–604, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. W. Jung and P. Jacobs, “Physical and chemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide MR contrast agents: ferumoxides, ferumoxtran, ferumoxsil,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 661–674, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. A. Hinds, J. M. Hill, E. M. Shapiro et al., “Highly efficient endosomal labeling of progenitor and stem cells with large magnetic particles allows magnetic resonance imaging of single cells,” Blood, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 867–872, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Mahmoudi, A. Simchi, M. Imani, and U. O. Hafeli, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with rigid cross-linked polyethylene glycol fumarate coating for application in imaging and drug delivery,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 19, pp. 8124–8131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. T. Branca, Y. M. Chen, V. Mouraviev et al., “IDQC anisotropy map imaging for tumor tissue characterization in vivo,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 937–943, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. A. Yablonskiy and E. M. Haacke, “Theory of NMR signal behavior in magnetically inhomogeneous tissues: the static dephasing regime,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 749–763, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. F. Schenck, “The role of magnetic susceptibility in magnetic resonance imaging: MRI magnetic compatibility of the first and second kinds,” Medical Physics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 815–850, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. H. Cunningham, T. Arai, P. C. Yang, M. V. McConnell, J. M. Pauly, and S. M. Conolly, “Positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging of cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 999–1005, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. H. Seppenwoolde, M. A. Viergever, and C. J. G. Bakker, “Passive tracking exploiting local signal conservation: the white marker phenomenon,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 784–790, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Mani, K. C. Briley-Saebo, V. V. Itskovich, D. D. Samber, and Z. A. Fayad, “Gradient echo acquisition for superparamagnetic particles with positive contrast (GRASP): sequence characterization in membrane and glass superparamagnetic iron oxide phantoms at 1.5T and 3T,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 126–135, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Liu, H. Dahnke, E. K. Jordan, T. Schaeffter, and J. A. Frank, “In vivo MRI using positive-contrast techniques in detection of cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 242–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. V. Mani, K. C. Briley-Saebo, F. Hyafil, and Z. A. Fayad, “Feasibility of in vivo identification of endogenous ferritin with positive contrast MRI in rabbit carotid crush injury using GRASP,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1096–1106, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. S. Bouchard, R. R. Rizi, and W. S. Warren, “Magnetization structure contrast based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 973–979, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Z. Chen, X. Zhu, B. Zheng, S. Cai, and J. Zhong, “Double-quantum-filtered intermolecular single-quantum coherences in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 429, no. 4–6, pp. 611–616, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. S. Bouchard and W. S. Warren, “Multiple-quantum vector field imaging by magnetic resonance,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 9–21, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Cai, F. Gao, S. Cai, J. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Highly efficient square wave distant dipolar field and its application for in vivo MRI,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1128–1134, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. T. Branca, G. Galiana, and W. S. Warren, “Enhanced nonlinear magnetic resonance signals via square wave dipolar fields,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 129, no. 5, Article ID 054502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. T. Branca, G. Galiana, and W. S. Warren, “Signal enhancement in CRAZED experiments,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 38–43, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Hou, Z. Chen, D. W. Hwang, J. H. Zhong, and L. P. Hwang, “Intermolecular double-quantum coherence MR microimaging of pig tail with unique image contrast,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 543–550, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Enss, S. Ahn, and W. S. Warren, “Visualizing the dipolar field in solution NMR and MR imaging: three-dimensional structure simulations,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 305, no. 1-2, pp. 101–108, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. N. Garroway, P. K. Grannell, and P. Mansfield, “Image formation in NMR by a selective irradiative process,” Journal of Physics C, vol. 7, no. 24, article no. 006, pp. L457–L462, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Balchandani, M. Yamada, J. Pauly, P. Yang, and D. Spielman, “Self-refocused spatial-spectral pulse for positive contrast imaging of cells labeled with SPIO nanoparticles,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 183–192, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. Zurkiya and X. Hu, “Off-resonance saturation as a means of generating contrast with superparamagnetic nanoparticles,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 726–732, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Zimmer, S. C. Wright, R. T. Engelhardt et al., “Tumor cell endocytosis imaging facilitates delineation of the glioma-brain interface,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. C. Roberts, T. P. L. Roberts, S. Ley, W. P. Dillon, and R. C. Brasch, “Quantitative estimation of microvascular permeability in human brain tumors: correlation of dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging with histopathologic grading,” Academic Radiology, vol. 9, no. 1, supplement, pp. S151–S155, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Khemtong, O. Togao, J. Ren et al., “Off-resonance saturation MRI of superparamagnetic nanoprobes: theoretical models and experimental validations,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Krämer, X. Helluy, T. Kampf, E. Lang, and P. M. Jakob, “Flow-enhanced off-resonance saturation for remote detection of iron-based contrast agents,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1708–1715, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Stuber, W. D. Gilson, M. Schär et al., “Positive contrast visualization of iron oxide-labeled stem cells using inversion-recovery with ON-resonant water suppression (IRON),” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1072–1077, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Korosoglou, L. Tang, D. Kedziorek et al., “Positive contrast MR-lymphography using inversion recovery with ON-resonant water suppression (IRON),” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1175–1180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Dharmakumar, I. Koktzoglou, and D. Li, “Generating positive contrast from off-resonant spins with steady-state free precession magnetic resonance imaging: theory and proof-of-principle experiments,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 51, no. 17, article no. 006, pp. 4201–4215, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Mascheri, R. Dharmakumar, Z. Zhang, T. Paunesku, G. Woloschak, and D. Li, “Fast low-angle positive contrast steady-state free precession imaging of USPIO-labeled macrophages: theory and in vitro experiment,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 961–969, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Çukur, M. Yamada, W. R. Overall, P. Yang, and D. G. Nishimura, “Positive contrast with alternating repetition time SSFP (PARTS): a fast imaging technique for SPIO-labeled cells,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 427–437, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Leupold, J. Hennig, and K. Scheffler, “Alternating repetition time balanced steady state free precession,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 557–565, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. S. Nayak, H. L. Lee, B. A. Hargreaves, and B. S. Hu, “Wideband SSFP: alternating repetition time balanced steady state free precession with increased band spacing,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 931–938, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Patil, D. Jirák, F. Saudek, M. Hájek, and K. Scheffler, “Positive contrast visualization of SPIO-labeled pancreatic islets using echo-dephased steady-state free precession,” European Radiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 214–220, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. H. Mills, Y. J. L. Wu, C. Ho, and E. T. Ahrens, “Sensitive and automated detection of iron-oxide-labeled cells using phase image cross-correlation analysis,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 618–628, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. H. Mills and E. T. Ahrens, “Enhanced positive-contrast visualization of paramagnetic contrast agents using phase images,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1349–1355, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Rauscher, M. Barth, J. R. Reichenbach, R. Stollberger, and E. Moser, “Automated unwrapping of MR phase images applied to BOLD MR-venography at 3 Tesla,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Eibofner, G. Steidle, R. Kehlbach, R. Bantleon, and F. Schick, “Positive contrast imaging of iron oxide nanoparticles with susceptibility-weighted imaging,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1027–1038, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. M. Haacke, Y. Xu, Y. C. N. Cheng, and J. R. Reichenbach, “Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI),” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 612–618, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Dahnke, W. Liu, D. Herzka, J. A. Frank, and T. Schaeffter, “Susceptibility gradient mapping (SGM): a new postprocessing method for positive contrast generation applied to superparamagnetic iron oxide particle (SPIO)-labeled cells,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 595–603, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. R. Reichenbach, R. Venkatesan, D. A. Yablonskiy, M. R. Thompson, S. Lai, and E. M. Haacke, “Theory and application of static field inhomogeneity effects in gradient-echo imaging,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 266–279, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Q. Zhao, J. Langley, S. Lee, and W. Liu, “Positive contrast technique for the detection and quantification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in MRI,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 464–472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Zhu, K. Demachi, and M. Sekino, “Phase gradient imaging for positive contrast generation to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled targets in magnetic resonance imaging,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 891–898, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. A. Gilad, P. Walczak, M. T. McMahon et al., “MR tracking of transplanted cells with "positive contrast" using manganese oxide nanoparticles,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Li, Z. Zhang, R. Dharmakumar, N. Mascheri, Z. Fan, and S. Wu, “Comparison of superparamagnetic and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide cell labeling for tracking green fluorescent protein gene marker with negative and positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging,” Molecular Imaging, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 148–155, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Chung, K. Kee, J. K. Barral et al., “In vivo molecular MRI of cell survival and teratoma formation following embryonic stem cell transplantation into the injured murine myocardium,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 1347–1381, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. Suzuki, C. H. Cunningham, K. I. Noguchi et al., “In vivo serial evaluation of superparamagnetic iron-oxide labeled stem cells by off-resonance positive contrast,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1269–1275, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. C. Brisset, M. Sigovan, F. Chauveau et al., “Quantification of iron-labeled cells with positive contrast in mouse brains,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. O. C. Andronesi, D. Mintzopoulos, N. Psychogios et al., “Combined off-resonance imaging and T2 relaxation in the rotating frame for positive contrast MR imaging of infection in a murine burn model,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1172–1183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. Korosoglou, R. G. Weiss, D. A. Kedziorek et al., “Noninvasive detection of macrophage-rich atherosclerotic plaque in hyperlipidemic rabbits using “positive contrast” magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 483–491, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. C. Briley-Saebo, V. Mani, F. Hyafil, J. C. Cornily, and Z. A. Fayad, “Fractionated Feridex and positive contrast: in vivo MR imaging of atherosclerosis,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 721–730, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Zabow, S. Dodd, J. Moreland, and A. Koretsky, “Micro-engineered local field control for high-sensitivity multispectral MRI,” Nature, vol. 453, no. 7198, pp. 1058–1063, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, W. Shim, S. Y. Kim, T. J. Park, and J. Y. Jung, “Tracking of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells labeled with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle in liver cirrhosis rat model with 3-T MRI,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1004–1013, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Y. Onuki, I. Jacobs, D. Artemov, and Y. Kato, “Noninvasive visualization of in vivo release and intratumoral distribution of surrogate MR contrast agent using the dual MR contrast technique,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 27, pp. 7132–7138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Z. Wei, Z. Zhou, M. Yang et al., “Multifunctional Ag@Fe2O3 yolk–shell nanoparticles for simultaneous capture, kill, and removal of pathogen,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 41, Article ID 16344, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. H. Yang, Y. Zhuang, Y. Sun et al., “Targeted dual-contrast T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of tumors using multifunctional gadolinium-labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 20, pp. 4584–4593, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. F. Wang, X. Chen, Z. Zhao et al., “Synthesis of magnetic, fluorescent and mesoporous core-shell-structured nanoparticles for imaging, targeting and photodynamic therapy,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 30, pp. 11244–11252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus