Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 810623, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/810623
Research Article

Influence of Compatibilizer and Processing Conditions on Morphology, Mechanical Properties, and Deformation Mechanism of PP/Clay Nanocomposite

1Polymeric Materials Research Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9466, Tehran 11365, Iran
2Materials Engineering and Research, SAPCO, P.O. Box 13885-315, Tehran, Iran

Received 15 December 2011; Revised 31 January 2012; Accepted 14 February 2012

Academic Editor: Luiz Antonio Ferreira Coelho

Copyright © 2012 B. Akbari and R. Bagheri. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C.-M. Chan, J. Wu, J.-X. Li, and Y.-K. Cheung, “Polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites,” Polymer, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 2981–2992, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. T. Thostenson, C. Li, and T.-W. Chou, “Nanocomposites in context,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 65, no. 3-4, pp. 491–516, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Jordan, K. I. Jacob, R. Tannenbaum, M. A. Sharaf, and I. Jasiuk, “Experimental trends in polymer nanocomposites—a review,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 393, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Rao and J. M. Pochan, “Mechanics of polymer-clay nanocomposites,” Macromolecules, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 290–296, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. S. Ray and M. Okamoto, “Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1539–1641, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S.-M. Lai, W.-C. Chen, and X.-S. Zhu, “Melt mixed compatibilized polypropylene/clay nanocomposites: part 1—the effect of compatibilizers on optical transmittance and mechanical properties,” Composites Part A, vol. 40, no. 6-7, pp. 754–765, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Okada and A. Usuki, “Twenty years of polymer-clay nanocomposites,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 291, no. 12, pp. 1449–1567, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  8. L. Szazdi, A. Pozsgay, and B. Pukanszky, “Factors and processes influencing the reinforcing effect of layered silicates in polymer nanocomposites,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 345–359, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Abu-Zurayk, E. Harkin-Jones, T. McNally, G. Menary, P. Martin, and C. Armstrong, “Biaxial deformation behavior and mechanical properties of a polypropylene/clay nanocomposite,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 1644–1652, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Palza, R. Vergara, M. Yazdani-Pedram, and R. Quijada, “Polypropylene/clay nanocomposites: effect of different clays and compatibilizers on their morphology,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 1278–1286, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Xu, H. Nakajima, E. Manias, and R. Krishnamoorti, “Tailored nanocomposites of polypropylene with layered silicates,” Macromolecules, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 3795–3803, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Manias, A. Touny, L. Wu, K. Strawhecker, B. Lu, and T. C. Chung, “Polypropylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Review of the synthetic routes and materials properties,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3516–3523, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Kurokawa, H. Yasuda, M. Kashiwagi, and A. Oyo, “Structure and properties of a montmorillonite/polypropylene nanocomposite,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 16, no. 20, pp. 1670–1672, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Kawasumi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kato, A. Usuki, and A. Okada, “Preparation and mechanical properties of polypropylene-clay hybrids,” Macromolecules, vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 6333–6338, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Kato, A. Usuki, and A. Okada, “Synthesis of polypropylene oligomer-clay intercalation compounds,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1781–1785, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Hasegawa, M. Kawasumi, M. Kato, A. Usuki, and A. Okada, “Preparation and mechanical properties of polypropylene-clay hybrids using a maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene oligomer,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Oya, Y. Kurokawa, and H. Yasuda, “Factors controlling mechanical properties of clay mineral/polypropylene nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1045–1050, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Reichert, H. Nitz, S. Klinke, R. Brandsch, R. Thomann, and R. Mülhaupt, “Poly(propylene)/organoclay nanocomposite formation: influence of compatibilizer functionality and organoclay modification,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 275, no. 1, pp. 8–17, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  19. H. Ishida, S. Campbell, and J. Blackwell, “General approach to nanocomposite preparation,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1260–1267, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Wang, F.-B. Chen, Y.-C. Li, and K.-C. Wu, “Melt processing of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites modified with maleated polypropylene compatibilizers,” Composites Part B, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 111–124, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  21. H. Wang, C. Zeng, P. Svoboda, and P. James Lee, “Preparation and properties of polypropylene nanocomposites,” in Proceedings of the 59th ANTEC Proceedings, pp. 2203–2207, Dallas, Tex, USA, 2001.
  22. K.-N. Kim, H.-S Kimm, and J.-W Lee, “Effect of interlayer structure, matrix viscosity and composition of a functionaiized polymer on the phase structure of polypropylene-montmorillonite nanocomposites,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1963–1969, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  23. H. R. Dennis, D. L. Hunter, D. Chang et al., “Effect of melt processing conditions on the extent of exfoliation in organoclay-based nanocomposites,” Polymer, vol. 42, no. 23, pp. 9513–9522, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Incarnato, P. Scarfato, G. M. Russo, L. di Maio, P. Iannelli, and D. Acierno, “Preparation and characterization of new melt compounded copolyamide nanocomposites,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 16, pp. 4625–4634, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Modesti, A. Lorenzetti, D. Bon, and S. Besco, “Effect of processing conditions on morphology and mechanical properties of compatibilized polypropylene nanocomposites,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 23, pp. 10237–10245, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. Lertwimolnun and B. Vergnes, “Influence of compatibilizer and processing conditions on the dispersion of nanoclay in a polypropylene matrix,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3462–3471, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. J. Bagheri, “Rubber toughened epoxy: roles of particle cavitation and rubber/particle interface,” Ph.D. thesis, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. Rauwendaal, SPC: Statistical Process Control in Injection Molding and Extrusion, Carl Hanser, Munich, Germany, 2000.
  29. Z. Tadmor and C. G. Gogos, Principles of Polymer Processing, John Wiley & Sons, 1979.
  30. D. G. Baird and D. I. Collias, Polymer Processing: Principles and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
  31. I. Narisawa and M. Ishikawa, “Crazing in semicrystalline thermoplastics,” in Crazing in Polymers (Advances in Polymer Science, Vols 91/92), H. Kausch, Ed., p. 353, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. M. Zebarjad, R. J. Bagheri, A. Lazzeri, and S. Serajzadeh, “Fracture behaviour of isotactic polypropylene under static loading condition,” Materials and Design, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 105–109, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Akbari and R. J. Bagheri, “Influence of PP-g-MA on morphology, mechanical properties and deformation mechanism of copolypropylene/clay nanocomposite,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 3751–3759, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus