Table 5: Key reliability challenges of PCM.

Reliability challenges of PCM References

1Reported endurance failures of PCM are stuck reset of set state (open due to void generated at interface between GST and bottom electrode contact), the stuck set of reset state (small voids spread over the active region that block heat from bottom electrode contact), and tails bit with low resistance from the reset distribution[29]
2Thermal disturbance effect on Vt and resistance during reset operation. [21] reported that increase in temperature due to thermal disturbance decreases Vt drift and reset resistance [27, 28]
3RTN effect found on PCM. Dependency of current fluctuation on programmed resistance was confirmed through experimental work and numerical model[24]
4Structural relaxation (SR) effect induce Vt shift as a function of annealing time. This indicates the data stability depends on the SR effect for amorphous phase of PCM[25, 26]