Figure 4: Ripples structures promote a Gd3+-sensitive Ca2+ entry pathway in endothelial cells. Substrates were fixed in a perfusion chamber and after recording the base line for 1 min perfusion with 2 mM calcium buffer was started. All experiments were carried out with or without Gd3+ preincubation for 6 h. Then, 15 μM BHQ was applied. Time course of FuraRed AM measurement of cells grown on the indicated substrate is shown in (a). Data are calculated in 10 sec intervals and averaged. Bar graphs show calcium levels at 30 sec (no perfusion) and after 2 min perfusion (b). The maximum peak after 15 μM BHQ stimulation in CTRL and preincubated cells is shown in (c). cells from 3 independent experiments; values for FuraRed AM ratios ± SEM; ; ; n.s. = not significant.