Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 751497, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/751497
Research Article

Fabrication of Polystyrene/Detonation Nanographite Composite Microspheres with the Core/Shell Structure via Pickering Emulsion Polymerization

1College of Automation, Xi’an Institute of Post and Telecommunication, Xi’ans 710121, China
2College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China

Received 20 June 2013; Revised 23 July 2013; Accepted 27 July 2013

Academic Editor: Mengnan Qu

Copyright © 2013 Hou Xuemei and Ying Hao. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. Hagrman, D. Hagrman, and J. Zubieta, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials: from simple coordination polymers to organodiamine-templated molybdenum oxides,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 38, no. 18, pp. 2638–2684, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. F. Ashby and Y. J. M. Bréchet, “Designing hybrid materials,” Acta Materialia, vol. 51, no. 19, pp. 5801–5821, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. P. Cong and S. H. Yu, “Self-assembly of functionalized inorganic-organic hybrids,” Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 71–80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Zhang, G. Gao, D. C. Zhao et al., “Crystallization and surface photovoltage properties of polystyrene coated by TiO2 nanoparticles,” Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities, vol. 25, no. 11, p. 2122, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. H. Chen, Y. Y. Liu, R. H. Lin, and F. S. Yen, “Photocatalytic degradation of p-phenylenediamine with TiO2-coated magnetic PMMA microspheres in an aqueous solution,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 163, no. 2-3, pp. 973–981, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. E. Fabiyi and R. L. Skelton, “Photocatalytic mineralisation of methylene blue using buoyant TiO2-coated polystyrene beads,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 132, no. 1-2, pp. 121–128, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. J. Huang, P. Rajendran, and C. M. Liddell, “Chemical bath deposition synthesis of sub-micron ZnS-coated polystyrene,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 308, no. 1, pp. 112–120, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Z. Yin, X. Du, H. Liu, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Facile one-step fabrication of polymer microspheres with high magnetism and armored inorganic particles by Pickering emulsion polymerization,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 414, pp. 289–295, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Pyun and K. Matyjaszewski, “Synthesis of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using controlled/“living” radical polymerization,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3436–3448, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. D. Cozzoli, T. Pellegrino, and L. Manna, “Synthesis, properties and perspectives of hybrid nanocrystal structures,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1195–1208, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Chen, C. Wu, W. Weng, D. Wu, and W. Yan, “Preparation of polystyrene/graphite nanosheet composite,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1781–1784, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. S. Saunders, S. C. Galea, and G. K. Deirmendjian, “The development of fatigue damage around fastener holes in thick graphite/epoxy composite laminates,” Composites, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 309–321, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. A. Ezquerra, M. Kulescza, and F. J. Baltá-Calleja, “Electrical transport in polyethylene-graphite composite materials,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 915–920, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. H. Chen, D. J. Wu, W. G. Weng, and W. L. Yan, “Preparation of polymer/graphite conducting nanocomposite by intercalation polymerization,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 2506–2513, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Roussel and B. Boutevin, “Preparation of polystyrene-graphite conducting nanocompositesvia intercalation polymerization,” Polymer International, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 980–985, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. H. Chen, D. J. Wu, W. G. Weng, and W. L. Yan, “Dispersion of graphite nanosheets in a polymer matrix and the conducting property of the nanocomposites,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 2148–2154, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. X. Pan, Z. Z. Yu, Y. C. Ou, and G. H. Hu, “A new process of fabricating electrically conducting nylon 6/graphite nanocomposites via intercalation polymerization,” Journal of Polymer Science B, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1626–1633, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  18. W. Zheng, X. Lu, and S. C. Wong, “Electrical and mechanical properties of expanded graphite-reinforced high-density polyethylene,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 2781–2788, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Chen, C. Wu, W. Weng, D. Wu, and W. Yan, “Preparation of polystyrene/graphite nanosheet composite,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1781–1784, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. K. Goyal, P. A. Jagadale, and U. P. Mulik, “Thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of polystyrene/expanded graphite nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 2071–2077, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Yasmin and I. M. Daniel, “Mechanical and thermal properties of graphite platelet/epoxy composites,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 24, pp. 8211–8219, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Wu, W. Zhao, H. Hu, and G. Chen, “One-step in situ ball milling synthesis of polymer-functionalized graphene nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 8626–8632, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. M. Uhl and C. A. Wilkie, “Preparation of nanocomposites from styrene and modified graphite oxides,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 215–226, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Ding, Y. Hu, Z. Gui, R. Zong, Z. Chen, and W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of polystyrene/graphite oxide nanocomposite by emulsion polymerization,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 473–476, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. X. Li, Y. Qu, H. Yan, and X. Wang, “Research progress on nanosized materials synthesized by detonation method,” Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 2069–2074, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Wen, Z. Jin, J. Guan, X. Li, G. Zhou, and G. Zhou, “Nano-graphite synthesized by explosive detonation,” Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 628–631, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Q. Chen and S. R. Yun, “Exploration of the mechanism of synthesis ultradispersed diamond by detonation,” Explosion and Shock Waves, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 326–332, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. H. Chen, C. Y. Cheng, W. Y. Chiu, C. F. Lee, and N. Y. Liang, “Synthesis of ZnO/polystyrene composites particles by Pickering emulsion polymerization,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 3271–3279, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Z. Cao, A. Schrade, K. Landfester, and U. Ziener, “Synthesis of raspberry-like organic-inorganic hybrid nanocapsules via pickering miniemulsion polymerization: colloidal stability and morphology,” Journal of Polymer Science A, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 2382–2394, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. Li, Y. Qu, H. Yan, and X. Wang, “Research progress on nanosized materials synthesized by detonation method,” Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 2069–2074, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Yin, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Yin, “Fabrication of covalently-bonded polystyrene/SiO2 composites by Pickering emulsion polymerization,” Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 689–696, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Zhang, W. Wu, H. Meng, K. Guo, and J. F. Chen, “Pickering emulsion polymerization: preparation of polystyrene/nano-SiO2 composite microspheres with core-shell structure,” Powder Technology, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 393–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Sacanna, W. K. Kegel, and A. P. Philipse, “Thermodynamically stable pickering emulsions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 98, no. 15, Article ID 158301, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. P. Binks and J. H. Clint, “Solid wettability from surface energy components: relevance to pickering emulsions,” Langmuir, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1270–1273, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Chen, C. Wu, W. Weng, D. Wu, and W. Yan, “Preparation of polystyrene/graphite nanosheet composite,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1781–1784, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. O. Zhou, T. J. Shi, and X. Zhou, “Preparation of polystyrene/SiO2 microsphere via Pickering emulsion polymerization: synergistic effect of SiO2 concentrations and initiator sorts,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 266, pp. 33–38, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. N. Liu, S. Qi, S. Li, X. Wu, and L. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of phenol formaldehyde/Ag/graphite nanosheet composites,” Polymer Testing, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 390–396, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. M. Chen, S. H. Liu, S. J. Chen, and Z. N. Qi, “FTIR spectra, thermal properties, and dispersibility of a polystyrene/montmorillonite nanocomposite,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 202, no. 7, pp. 1189–1193, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  39. Y. Rong, H. Z. Chen, G. Wu, and M. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticle/ polystyrene composites via radical polymerization,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 91, no. 2-3, pp. 370–374, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Imhof, “Preparation and characterization of titania-coated polystyrene spheres and hollow titania shells,” Langmuir, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3579–3585, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. Lin, X. Xi, and C. Yu, “Research of silver plating nano-graphite filled conductive adhesive,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 159, no. 7-8, pp. 619–624, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Ni, L. Wang, Y. Sun, Z. Guan, S. Yang, and K. Zhou, “Amphiphilic hollow carbonaceous microspheres with permeable shells,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 49, no. 25, pp. 4223–4227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Gnanasambandam and A. Proctor, “Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Food Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 327–332, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Wen, Z. H. Jin, J. Q. Guan et al., “Infrared spectroscopy studies of nano-graphite synthesized by explosive detonation,” Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1043–1045, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  45. N. Liu, S. Qi, S. Li, X. Wu, and L. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of phenol formaldehyde/Ag/graphite nanosheet composites,” Polymer Testing, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 390–396, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. S. Gaal, Thermal Conductivity 24: and Thermal Expansion 12, CRC Press, Pennsylvania, Pa, USA, 1999.
  47. G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 4-5, pp. 703–706, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Hagfeldt and M. Gratzel, “Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 49–68, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. B. N. Jang and C. A. Wilkie, “The thermal degradation of polystyrene nanocomposite,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 2933–2942, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. F. Vilaplana, A. Ribes-Greus, and S. Karlsson, “Degradation of recycled high-impact polystyrene. Simulation by reprocessing and thermo-oxidation,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 2163–2170, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus