Figure 7: (a) Schematic diagram of the dye-sensitized solar cell with the one-dimensional hierarchical titania as photoanode on FTO, showing the processes involved in current generation. (b, c) TEM images of the one-dimensional titania with hierarchical structures after calcination at 300°C (b) and 700°C (c). (d, e) The electron lifetime ( ) (d) and electron transport time ( ) (e) for DSSCs of titania with hierarchical structures, nanorods, and nanoparticles [50].